What does an occupational therapist do

What does an occupational therapist do excellent

Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy. Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. Increasing oil and gas exploration activities in the absence of sufficient baseline data in deep-sea ecosystems has made environmental management challenging.

Here, we review the types of activities that are associated with global offshore oil and gas development in water depths over 200 m, the typical impacts of these activities, some of the more extreme impacts of accidental oil and gas releases, and the current state of management in the major regions of offshore industrial activity what does an occupational therapist do 18 exclusive economic zones.

These impacts may persist in the deep sea for many years and likely longer for its more fragile ecosystems, such as cold-water corals. This synthesis of information provides the basis for a series of recommendations for the management of offshore oil and gas development. An effective management strategy, aimed at minimizing risk of significant environmental harm, will typically encompass regulations of the activity itself (e.

Spatial management measures that encompass representatives of all of the regional deep-sea community types is important in this context. Implementation of these management strategies should consider minimum buffer zones to displace industrial activity beyond the range of typical impacts: at least 2 km from any discharge points and surface infrastructure and 200 m from seafloor infrastructure with no expected discharges.

Although managing natural resources is, arguably, more challenging in deep-water environments, inclusion of these proven what does an occupational therapist do tools contributes to robust environmental management strategies for oil and gas extraction in wyat deep sea.

Exploration of oil and gas deposits is now a global industrial activity in the deep ocean. As easily accessible oil and gas resources became depleted, and technology improved, the oil and gas industry expanded into deeper waters 150 diflucan recent decades (Figure 1).

However, this what does an occupational therapist do expansion has not always been matched by legislation that reflects modern practices of environmental conservation. There is a clear need to bring together current knowledge of deep-sea ecology, known human impacts on deep-water ecosystems, and the scattered environmental protection measures that exist to date.

Potentially petroliferous offshore zones and regional distribution of proven offshore oil and gas reserves. Adapted from Pinder (2001). However, there has not what does an occupational therapist do been a significant effort what does an occupational therapist do standardize regulations across EEZs or occupattional develop regional management organizations as exist for high-seas fisheries management.

Application of management strategies in the deep sea is complicated by the unique ecological proscenium on which they play out (Jumars and Gallagher, 1982).

Biological systems in the deep sea operate what does an occupational therapist do a notably slower pace than in shallow waters (Smith, 1994). Many deep-sea species typically have low metabolic rates, slow growth rates, late maturity, low levels of recruitment, and long life spans (McClain and Schlacher, 2015). Many deep-sea habitats also harbor diverse faunal assemblages that are composed of a relatively large proportion and number of rare species at low abundances (Glover et al.

In some habitats (e. These attributes make deep-sea species and assemblages sensitive to anthropogenic stressors, with low resilience to disturbances from human activities hills et al. Protective measures can include spatial management (i. These forms of management what does an occupational therapist do been implemented and enforced with varying degrees of success in a number of jurisdictions.

However, there remains no standard set of best practice approaches that has broad-based support. Industrial exploitation of occupatioal and gas reserves has occurred in shallow marine areas since 1897, when the wells drilled at sea from piers in Ro, California, first produced oil (Hyne, 2001).

By the 1960s, this drilling had moved into deeper offshore areas as easily accessible resources declined, technology for offshore drilling improved, and large reserves of hydrocarbons were what does an occupational therapist do. Gas-hydrate extraction is still in the what does an occupational therapist do phase, thetapist while many of the conclusions and recommendations included here could be applied to that nascent industry, we do not explicitly consider those activities here.

Deep-water exploration involves multiple steps (Kark et al. If suitable targets are detected, one or more exploration wells are drilled to ground-truth the interpretation of the acoustic data and determine the nature of the reservoir. If economically recoverable hydrocarbon reserves are located, the site may advance to production (Hyne, 2001). This typically involves the drilling of one or more appraisal wells followed by several production wells and the therappist of various surface (e.

Additional drilling may be required as the field develops, either to expand the field or to enhance oil or gas recovery (Boesch and Rabalais, 1987).

In deep-water settings, drilling is typically from semi-submersible rigs or drill ships that hold station by anchors or dynamic positioning (Figure 2). In a production what does an occupational therapist do, the various wells are connected together with a series of pipes and control cables (Hyne, 2001). Individual wells may be 1 m in occupatuonal, and are often several kilometers in length.

Drilling an individual well may take between 1 and 3 months. Dows fluid may be seawater or a combination of what does an occupational therapist do often referred to as drilling mud (see Sections below).

A steel pipe, known as the casing, is pushed into the well behind therapisf drill and eventually cemented in place (Hyne, 2001). The BOP contains a series of valves controlling the well, and once it is in place, the well is effectively sealed and the drilling fluids and cuttings can be recirculated to the rig for processing and recycling.



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