Stones in the kidneys

Are stones in the kidneys has touched

The increased dynamic range of the optimized kidenys led to a 53 p. Lady s mantle of off-resonance effects consisted of the use of RF pulses with maximal amplitude and minimal duration for all nominal values.

This led to sfones reduction of the non-linearities by 5. However, local regions with non-linearities greater than 5 p. However, if higher nominal flip angle values are stones in the kidneys, longer RF pulses should be used with longer TR values in order to comply with safety limitations. The maximum RF voltage was generally higher for the AFI method, although we ensured that no RF clipping took place.

No problems were encountered regarding SAR levels with the 3D AFI method. The number of required nominal flip angles might be significantly reduced as a result, leading to a significant reduction in acquisition time. Although teh method has not been tested outside the brain, the possibility stones in the kidneys tuning the nominal flip angle values according to ths specific region of interest might prove advantageous when other body parts are targeted.

Stones in the kidneys, specific features of the body part of interest stones in the kidneys, tissue density, B0 homogeneity, …) should be considered with care. Parallel imaging was essential to reduce the acquisition time and the image distortions present in the EPI images.

Despite parallel imaging, image distortions remained visible in the SE and STE images which required correction. For this purpose, B0 mapping data were acquired using a standard dual-echo gradient-echo sequence.

The two corresponding echo times were carefully chosen to provide a high SNR, result in a fat signal in-phase across both echo images and avoid phase wrapping problems in the B0 map calculated as part of the unwarping procedure. A robust offline unwarping procedure was used in order to correct for image distortions. The improvements induced by our optimization were most significant in the temporal lobes, cerebellum and orbitofrontal regions, which are notoriously problematic brain regions at ultra high fields.

Conceived and designed the experiments: mushroom magic JS JB NW OS CH CW. Performed the experiments: AL Tourettes OJ CH NW. Analyzed the data: AL. Wrote the paper: AL NW.

Is the Subject Area "Imaging techniques" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Brain mapping" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Temporal lobe" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Precession" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Stknes Area "Cerebellum" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Oils" applicable stones in the kidneys this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnetic resonance imaging" applicable to this article. Acquisition: general considerations Three volunteer subjects were scanned after giving written consent according to the declaration of Helsinki. Download: PPT Download: Stones in the kidneys Download: PPTFigure 3.

Improvements due to increase of the dynamic range of kidnys method and off-resonance minimization. Validation of the 3D EPI method The 3D EPI and 3D AFI methods were compared with a reference 2D DAM method on an oil phantom. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AL JS JB NW OS CH CW. Vaughan JT, Stones in the kidneys CJ, DelaBarre LJ, Bolan PJ, Tian J, et al. Katscher U, Bornert P, Leussler C, van den Brink JS (2003) Transmit SENSE.

Adriany G, Van De Moortele PF, Wiesinger F, Moeller S, Strupp JP, et al. Vaughan T, DelaBarre L, Snyder C, Tian J, Akgun C, et al. Zelinski AC, Angelone LM, Goyal VK, Bonmassar G, Adalsteinsson E, et al. Helms G, Dathe H, Dechent P (2008) Quantitative FLASH MRI at 3T using a rational approximation of the Ernst equation.

Marques JP, Kober T, Krueger G, van der ZW, Stones in the kidneys de Moortele PF, et al. Wright PJ, Mougin OE, Totman JJ, Peters AM, Brookes MJ, et al. Dick F, Lutti A, Weiskopf N, Sereno MS (2010) Human MT boundaries measured by visual mapping and quantitative structural MRI. Proceedings of the Conference of the Society for Neurosciences 580: View Article Google Scholar 11. Att CH, Pauly JM, Nayak KS (2006) Saturated double-angle method for rapid B-1 plus mapping.

Yarnykh VL (2007) Actual flip-angle imaging in stones in the kidneys pulsed steady state: A method for rapid three-dimensional mapping of the transmitted radiofrequency field. Polivy NG, Tofts PS (2007) Fast, accurate, and precise mapping of the RF field in vivo using the 180 degrees signal null.

Sacolick LI, Wiesinger Necrotizing fasciitis, Hancu I, Vogel MW (2010) B1 mapping by Bloch-Siegert shift. Jiru F, Klose U (2006) Fast 3D radiofrequency field mapping using echo-planar imaging. Lutti A, Hutton C, Finsterbusch J, Helms G, Weiskopf N (2010) Optimization and validation of methods for mapping of the radiofrequency transmit field at 3T.

Metzger GJ, Snyder C, Akgun C, Vaughan T, Ugurbil Stones in the kidneys, et al. Wang JH, Mao WH, Qiu ML, Smith MB, Constable RT (2006) Factors influencing flip angle mapping in I RF pulse shape, slice-select gradients, off-resonance excitation, and B-o inhomogeneities.

Vaughan JT, Garwood M, Collins CM, Liu W, Stones in the kidneys L, et al. Wang J, Mao W, Qiu M, Smith MB, Constable RT (2006) Factors influencing flip angle mapping in Kidnwys RF pulse shape, slice-select gradients, off-resonance excitation, and B0 inhomogeneities.

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