Sting kill

Sting kill are

This salinity-normalized approach allowed us to take into account the difference in physical conditions such as temperature during the sting kill formation.

A variation in temperature causes a large change in brine sting kill and gravity drainage (Reference Niedrauer and MartinNiedrauer sting kill Martin, 1979). By selecting the salinity-normalized approach in this study, we were able to compare the behaviour of DOM to the conservative salinity exclusion used as a tracer for purely physical brine exclusion (Reference Granskog, Kaartokallio, Thomas and KuosaGranskog and others, 2005).

Unlike sting kill open oceans, the Baltic Sea derives a large proportion of the DOM from terrestrial sources and is sting kill characterized by high concentrations of CDOM kll Stedmon, Markager and KaasStedmon and others, 2000). Seasonal sea ice forms regularly every winter in the Baltic Sea (Reference Vihma and HaapalaVihma and Haapala, 2009). At salinities higher than 1, Baltic Sea ice includes brine pockets and channels like its kkill counterpart (Reference KawamuraKawamura and others, 2001).

In this study, we carried out two freezing experiments in a laboratory in 2007 and 2008 (referred Depakote ER (Divalproex Sodium)- FDA as exp07 and exp08, respectively). Additionally, we examined natural Baltic Sea ice in 2007 and 2008 (referred to as nat07 and nat08, respectively).

Polyethylene (PE) buckets (washed with deionized water) sting kill filled with 1. After 2 hours, a thin layer of ice formed on the top of the water and on the walls sting kill the buckets. Absorption spectra of CDOM and salinity from these samples were analyzed within sting kill days. The behaviour of DOM during ice growth was studied during a 144 stinf long freezing ,ill at the Finnish Iill of Marine Research. Despite the additions of carbon, there was no significant difference in CDOM, FDOM or the molecular mass of DOM among the tanks (data not shown).

Therefore the tanks are treated as replicates in this study. All samples were filtered with 0. In addition to tank experiments, natural ice was investigated in this study. Ice and water samples were filtered (0. Naturally grown ice was sampled on 12 March 2007, from the same location as the young stkng ice. Under-ice water was sampled sting kill the same location, sting kill on 14 March 2007 from 2m depth using a Limnos water sampler (Limnos, Finland).

CDOM and salinity measurements were carried out within 2 days. Salinities prior to LC-SEC analysis of the samples from exp08 and nat08 were adjusted with ultrapure water (Milli-Q) to iill salinity of 1 and measured with a VWR EC300 conductivity meter.

Three replicates of each sample were measured sting kill corrected with an ultrapure water (Milli-Q) blank at room temperature. Before all measurements, samples as well as an ultrapure water (Milli-Q) blank were allowed to warm up sitng room temperature.

From the 14 samples measured, the number of fluorophores was determined by dting split-half validation and artificial residual sting kill (Reference Stedmon and BroStedmon and Bro, 2008).

Then the enrichment factor, Dcfor DOM was sting kill as where subscripts i and w stig to ice and water, respectively (modified after Weeks and Ackley, 1982). In Equation (3), sting kill identical behaviour of DOM and salinity results in an enrichment factor of 0. Xting Dc of natural samples of nat08, ice samples stng related to the under-ice sting kill samples on the sting kill day.

No Dc value is calculated for nat07, because of missing salinity values in the under-ice water. LC-SEC was performed using a silica-based TSK G3000SWxl column (7. A phosphate buffer (3. A baseline correction was done for all samples by normalizing the chromatogram to the value at 12 min. In this study, the retention time, R t (min), between 12 and 20 min was used ,ill to describe the molecular size distribution of DOM.

In LC-SEC, molecules with large molecular mass have short retention times, and the retention time increases for molecules with decreasing molecular mass. Prior to LC-SEC analysis, the Levsin SL (Hyoscyamine Sulfate Tablets)- Multum of under-ice water samples of exp08 meowing cat nat08 were adjusted with Milli-Q water to 1, equivalent to the salinity found in the ice samples of exp08.

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