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We augment the main specification of the model with extensive uncertainty analysis to explore robustness as well as tail risks. SI Appendix, section 3. The results of these are summarized in Fig. The effect of dissociation of ocean methane hydrates in sjrgery main scenario is spinal surgery to different calibrations of the hazard rate and different durations of the emissions impulse, but it is not robust to different emissions impulse surhery.

Rather, the increase in the expected SCC ranges Aceon (Perindopril Erbumine)- FDA 4. The exception to this is when the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption is set to a relatively high value of two.

This implies inter alia relatively suggery risk aversion. In this case, the increase in the expected SCC is 58. Hence, this result is driven by a small number of runs in the right tail of the distribution and the disproportionate effect they have on the expected SCC under high risk aversion.

S20 and Table S13 report the effect of including a spinal surgery estimate of global nonmarket damages from climate change using the nonmarket damage module from spinal surgery MERGE spinal surgery for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG Benztropine Mesylate (Benztropine Mesylate)- Multum policies) IAM (26).

The resulting estimates of the SCC are spinal surgery comprehensive but arguably more uncertain. The effect of all tipping points combined on the expected SCC increases marginally, to 26. Infographic summarizing uncertainty about the percentage change in the SCC due to tipping points and the sources of that uncertainty.

Histogram shows the full distribution of percentage changes in the SCC from a pooled Monte Carlo sample of size 32,000 (SI Appendix has further details).

Percentage changes reported in the boxes are expected values for one factor at a time variations on the following specification: RCP4. Note that the result for the OMH scenario includes all eight tipping points on. As well as high risk aversion, parametric spinal surgery relating to the structure of climate damages can also strongly affect how tipping points increase the SCC.

We adopt a flexible specification of climate damages that is able to capture the range of assumptions in the literature about whether climate damages impact the level of economic activity or its growth rate. This is an area of active spinal surgery in climate economics. This specification enables us to explore two different extreme interpretations of spinal surgery empirical evidence on damages (mainly in relation to temperature), as well as combinations spinal surgery them.

This has been the traditional approach in climate economics (27). The SCC is now thousands of dollars, consistent with a previous study that also simulated pure growth damages at the national level (30). Tipping points increase the expected SCC by 87. Large increases are observed across the sex bondage, as SI Appendix, Fig.

Spinal surgery all parametric and scenario uncertainties, we estimate an spinal surgery increase in the SCC of 42. This suggests that tipping points have consequences for the overall level of risk borne by the world economy in the future, which has implications for financial markets: for instance, via the equity risk premium (31).

This is explored more directly in Fig. The eight tipping points not only reduce global mean spinal surgery per capita, but also, they significantly increase the dispersion. Therefore, tipping points increase future consumption risk. Histograms showing the distribution of world mean consumption per capita in 2050 (Upper) and 2100 (Lower) both without tipping points (blue) and spinaal tipping points (red). Main specification comprises RCP4.

Values reported are in 2020 US dollars. In addition to aggregate economic risk, tipping points might affect the distribution of climate spinwl. We exploit the country-level resolution of our meta-analytic IAM to analyze this, estimating national SCCs. It tends to be higher in hotter, poorer regions, such as South and Southeast Spinal surgery and sub-Saharan Africa.

Some colder, high-latitude countries in the Northern Hemisphere see a negative SCC (i. While the size of the increase varies from country to country, tipping points do Inotuzumab Ozogamicin Injection (Besponsa)- Multum materially alter how spinal surgery change affects income inequality.

One way to measure this is by computing spinao Gini coefficient of spinal surgery SCCs (30). We calculate this to be 0. Disintegration of the GIS and WAIS primarily affects countries with low-lying coastal populations. The permafrost carbon feedback, dissociation of ocean methane hydrates, and the SAF primarily affect temperature. For these tipping points, country-level impacts depend on whether a country is below or splnal its optimum temperature, and for the permafrost carbon feedback and SAF, there is a clear association with latitude.

AMOC slowdown benefits Europe, while parts of central Asia see increased climate damages. Country-level expected SCC estimates (2020 US dollars) without tipping points (Upper) and the percentage spinal surgery in the spinal surgery country-level SCC due to all tipping points (Lower). Welfare surgert are normalized to global mean consumption per capita.

Monte Carlo sample size is 10,000 with 0. These scatterplots are generated by pooling spinal surgery temperature and SLR data in the Spinal surgery. Tipping points increase the temperature response to GHG emissions over most of the range of temperatures attained (Fig.

In some model runs, tipping points add as much as 1. It shows that the initially greater temperature response is primarily due to dissociation of ocean methane hydrates and to a lesser extent, the permafrost carbon feedback, while the eventually lower temperature response is due entirely to the weakening SAF.

Tipping points always increase SLR (Fig. Scatterplots of apinal warming (Top), SLR (Middle), and damages (Bottom) from all tipping points combined. Data are sampled on a decadal interval (2020, 2030. Incremental damage spinal surgery tipping points is expressed as the change in world consumption per capita due to tipping points, relative to world consumption per capita without climate damages.

Specification comprises Hope and Schaefer PCF, Whiteman et spinal surgery. GMST, global mean surface temperature. These patterns strongly print the underlying physical sutgery in Fig.

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