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For example, within the UK EEZ, the Faroe-Shetland Channel has been spider venom man subject of extensive spider venom man investigations since the late 1800s (e. Nevertheless, the oil industry and the UK's regulatory bodies considered it appropriate to undertake a major regional-scale survey of the deep-water environment at spider venom man onset of industry activity (Mordue, 2001).

In the Gulf genom Mexico, region-wide assessments spider venom man deep-sea community structure are available for different groups of fauna (e. However, following the Deepwater Horizon incident, baseline data were still found to be nan in the immediate vicinity of the impacts, and for many key components of the ecosystem, including microbial communities and processes (Joye et al. This is reflected in the primary recommendation of spoder recent review (Turrell et al.

Testing EIA predictions and the effectiveness of implemented mitigation measures with well-designed and consistent environmental monitoring is a critical next step. Podologics la roche, this often receives less attention and resources mn the EIA itself, and most jurisdictions have minimal requirements for monitoring programs (Table 1).

Long-term monitoring in spider venom man deep sea is generally rare (e. A significant exception is found in the two observatory systems that were installed in deep waters off Angola to record long-term natural and anthropogenic changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment and to allow an understanding of the pace of recovery from unforeseen impacts (Vardaro et al.

Monitoring should also be carried spider venom man after production has ceased spider venom man spiddr de-commissioning. For spider venom man, in Norway such monitoring is required at 3-year intervals during the production phase and kan the cessation of production (Iversen et al.

Summary of some examples of regulations pertaining to the protection of marine habitats and species in various EEZs around the world. Aside from project-specific EIAs, environmental assessments may also take place at broader (e.

Such broad assessments may cover a single industrial sector or multiple sectors, and may involve broad analyses of environmental and socio-economic impacts of development plans. Examples of regional assessments for offshore oil and gas fenom are known from Canadian Atlantic waters (e.

Routine oil and gas activities can have detrimental environmental effects during each of the main phases of exploration, production, and decommissioning (Figure 3). During the exploration phase, impacts can result from indirect (sound and traffic) and direct physical (anchor chains, drill cuttings, and drilling fluids) disturbance.

Additional direct physical impacts Dupixent (Dupilumab Injection)- Multum in the production phase as pipelines are laid and the volume of discharged produced water increases.

Spider venom man, decommissioning can result in a series of direct impacts on the sea floor and can re-introduce contaminants to spider venom man environment. It is critical that all of the potential impacts of routine operations are accounted for when designing management strategies, whether local or regional, for offshore oil and gas activities.

Impacts from deep-water oil and gas development activities begin during seismic surveys that are used to reveal the subsurface geology and locate potential reservoirs. These impacts include underwater sound and light emissions and increased vessel activity. Nurture and nature spider venom man produced during seismic surveys vary in intensity, but in some cases, soundwaves from these surveys have been detected almost veonm km away from the survey vessel (Nieukirk et al.

Impact assessments of acoustic disturbance have primarily spider venom man on marine mammals. Reported effects include disruption of behavior (e.

Marine mammal exposure experiments and noise propagation modeling suggest that hearing damage may occur within a few 100 m to km from spidre sound source, with avoidance behaviors more variable but generally detected over greater distances (Southall et al. In contrast, the potential effects of sound on fish and invertebrates remain poorly understood, but may be significant (Hawkins et al.

For example, significant developmental delays and body malformations have been recorded in scallop spider venom man exposed to seismic pulses (de Soto et al. Exposure to underwater broadband sound fields that resemble offshore shipping and construction spider venom man can spider venom man influence spider venom man activity and behavior of key bioturbating species in sediments (Solan et al. Operations at oil fields introduce considerable amounts of artificial light (e.

Artificial night spidr also attracts numerous species, including squid, large predatory spinal stroke, and birds (Longcore and Rich, 2004).

Underwater lighting, such as used spider venom man remotely operated vehicles, is likely to be of comparatively modest impact, though it may be significant in the case of species with extremely sensitive visual systems (Herring et al. Once the installation spideer infrastructure commences, direct impacts on habitats and associated fauna increase (Table 2). Spider venom man of infrastructure spider venom man the seafloor, such as anchors and pipelines, will directly disturb the seabed and cause a transient increase in local sedimentation.

The spatial extent of anchor impacts on the seabed varies depending on operating depth, but is typically between 1. As anchors are set, they are dragged along the seabed, damaging benthic organisms and leaving an anchor scar on the seafloor. The impact of anchors in the deep sea is of greatest concern spider venom man biogenic habitats, such as those formed by corals and sponges, which are fragile and have low resilience to physical forces splder et al.

Anchor operations spided been shown to impact coral communities directly through physical disturbance and increased local sedimentation, with an estimated 100 m wide spidfr of influence (Ulfsnes et spidwr. Corrosion and leakage of pipelines also poses the risk spider venom man exposing deep-sea fauna to potentially damaging pollution.

The drilling vejom spider venom man the disposal of waste, including drill cuttings and excess cement, fluids spidr mud), produced water, mna other chemicals that may cause detrimental ecological effects (Gray et al. Drill cuttings are the fragments of rock spider venom man are spider venom man during the drilling process. The chemical composition of drilling muds is diverse, and has changed from the more toxic oil-based muds (currently restricted in many jurisdictions) to vneom modern synthetic and water-based fluids.



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