Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA

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However, there are no similarly clear associations for the online success of female scientists. Instead, even in broad research areas with better female representation, there is a gender gap with women obtaining less visibility from the same level of scientific impact than their male colleagues. Moreover, while male scientists have a higher online success when working with female coauthors, female scientists in most research areas are at a significant disadvantage if their coauthors are mainly men.

Ad injections also find that the overlap between who is successful online and Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA work has garnered scientific impact offline is lower for women than for men, which suggests that online platforms can indeed increase the visibility of female scientists beyond that of those whose Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA is already well established offline.

It is all the more important, then, to continue this line of research to better understand the Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA paths to online success for female scholars. Our focus on studying science dissemination online in a given year limits us from analyzing dynamic aspects of online success. Similar to other studies using shoulder blade gender inferring algorithms (5), our results can be biased toward Western scholars and may not be generalized globally without limitations (57).

Furthermore, English language publications and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields are overrepresented in Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA data sources. Our analysis also calls for further scrutiny of the gendered aspect of online Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA in relation to the multiple and individually less controllable factors that influence the dissemination of a scientific finding online, such as how interesting and understandable the research topic is for the wider scientific community and the public (58), as well as the demographic characteristics (32) and the overall technological savviness (20) of the research community.

Our analysis cannot uncover the mechanisms behind the bias in visibility, which could range from risk aversion to competitiveness, along with discrimination. Notwithstanding these limitations, our study provides evidence that female scientists are less successful online Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA ph3 ones across all areas of science.

Despite the online perpetuation of offline gender inequities, female scholars are increasingly conscious users of social media. In addition to sharing their work online as individuals or as a collective (e. These channels help women to obtain greater visibility and receive more credit for their work (23).

The social media usage patterns uncovered here indicate that the online visibility of female scholars is unlikely to establish gender equity in science on its own. However, it can be a powerful piece in a larger strategy to challenge the bias in visibility of women and underrepresented minorities in science. Our data combine three sources connected by the unique DOI of each research article (1).

We used publication history data from the Open Academic Graph (OAG) for Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA period 2007 to 2012 to build the coauthorship network. Given the focus on individual visibility, our analysis centers on articles with 10 or Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA authors.

We connected our Altmetric data with all articles published in 2012 in the WoS. We used WOS data to determine Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA broad research area of articles (42). The combined data contained 241,386 articles by 537,486 scholars. To be a publishing scientist in a given broad research area, an author needed at least one article published within one of the scientific subfields belonging to the broad research area.

Therefore a scientist could belong to multiple broad research areas. See SI Appendix, Table S2 for descriptive statistics of the resulting dataset.

We ran the Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA developed by Ford et al. The algorithm uses a conservative heuristic to establish gender, Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA unlabeled 19. To test the accuracy of gender imputation, we took a random sample of 100 scientists from the Altmetric data Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA manually checked their gender based on information available about them online.

Then, we validated the gender imputation algorithm using the manually confirmed genders as the baseline. This score reaches 1 when both precision and recall are perfect (SI Appendix, Fig. To evaluate the resulting conditional probabilities, we took a random sample from the lower success category (e.

Then, we calculated the fraction of women from the lower success category who are also successful in the higher success category. Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA repeated the process 10,000 times and computed the fraction of trials that resulted in a higher female ratio than in the lower success category.

If this fraction is lower than 0. We conducted principal component analysis Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA on each variable group mini pill birth control for each broad research area producing components for scientific impact, social capital, and network maleness and femaleness. In SI Appendix, Figs. S5 and S6 show the correlation between individual variables and the resulting factors.

To tackle the binary classification problem of whether a scholar is successful online or not, we employ a logistic regression classifier, which is an out-of-the-box supervised journals medical approach.

We run the models for each broad research area separately and we exclude from all models authors with unknown gender. Each of our models contains the factors capturing scientific impact, social capital, network femaleness and maleness, their interactions with gender (i. On the same link, we also provide aggregate and anonymized data at the Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA of individual scholars that are required to Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA our findings and figures.

We thank Altmetric for generously providing data from their platform. This project also uses Web of Science data by Cornelia de lange syndrome Analytics provided by the Indiana University Network Science Institute and the Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- FDA for Network Science Center at Indiana University.

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Comments:

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