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Indexed in Clarivate Iron supplement dietary services Journal Citations Reports 2020 Journal Citation Indicator (JCI): 1.

Newsletter Search engine Search p-ISSN 1689-765Xe-ISSN 2353-3293DOI: 10. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum Policy.

Evidence from China by Gigamon Joseph Prah Journal of Finance and Economics. This column presents new evidence confirming the perception. The number of articles published in top journals has fallen, while the number and length of submissions have risen. The profession should consider recalibrating publication demands to reflect this new reality.

Publications in the top journals have a powerful influence on the direction of research in economics, on the career paths of young researchers (Conley et al. To what extent has the publication process in these journals changed over the past few decades.

Remarkably little comprehensive evidence exists Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum the topic. In Card and DellaVigna (2013), we present a descriptive overview of trends among the papers published in Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum 'top five' economics journals: The American Economic Review (AER), Econometrica (EMA), the Journal of Political Economy (JPE), The Quarterly Journal of Economics (QJE), and The Review of Economic Studies (RES).

We exclude papers published in the "Annual Papers and Proceedings" issue of AER, as well as notes, comments, and announcements. We combine data from EconLit on all articles published Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum these outlets since 1970 with matched citation data from Google Scholar and annual submission counts from the journals.

Our analysis builds on the study by Ellison (2002) but extends his work in several directions, including the consideration of paper-specific citations. We identify nine key trends. First, as Figure 1 shows, the number of yearly submissions to the five top journals nearly doubled from 1990 to 2012.

The increases are especially large for QJE and RES, but are clearly present for all Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum journals except JPE, which received about the same number of submissions in 2011 as in 1987-1989.

It is also interesting to note that most of the secular increase in submissions documented in the figure has occurred since the year 2000. Second, as Figure 2 shows, the total number of articles published in the top journals declined from about 400 per year in the late 1970s to around 300 per Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum in 2010-12.

Notes: Publications exclude notes, comments, announcements, and Papers and Proceedings. Totals for 2012 estimated. Over time, and especially during the last 15 years, it has become increasingly difficult to publish in the top five journals. Other things equal, this suggests that hiring and promotion benchmarks based on top-five publications (e. Which journals are most responsible for the decline in the number of articles published.

The largest decreases are for Econometrica, which cut the average number of articles per year from around 100 in the Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum to 60 today, and the Journal of Political Economy, which published 85 articles per year in the 1970s but now publishes only 30 articles per year.

QJE and RES also experienced declines Corphedra Injection (Corphedra)- FDA of smaller magnitudes.

Only The American Economic Review has increased the number of articles published today relative to the late 1970s, from about 100 per year to around 125 per year. Stated differently, in the late 1970s AER and JPE had about equal say in the gatekeeping process that determined publications in the top-five journals. Now Megace has four times greater weight than JPE. Fourth, we document the trends to the length of published articles.

To do so, we normalise the length of articles to adjust for the different page density in different journals. As Figure 3 shows, we find that published papers in the top five journals are nearly three times longer today than they were in the 1970s. Indeed, a paper in the Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum percentile of length roche marketing published papers in 1970 is shorter than a paper in the tenth percentile of length among papers published in 2012.

Furthermore, the five journals moved in a remarkably parallel way over time. Notes: Page lengths are adjusted for differences in page density across journals. Standardised length includes 2550 characters per page. Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum substantial increase in page length of articles has led several journals to consider or implement page limits in newly submitted articles. In a separate paper (Card and DellaVigna 2012), we study the impact of page limit policies adopted by The American Economic Degree therapist in 2008 and the Journal of the European Economic Association (JEEA) in 2009 in response to this substantial increase in the length of articles.

We focus the analysis on the decision by potential authors to either shorten a longer manuscript in response to the page limit, or submit to another journal, and show that under a simple set of assumptions one can infer a threshold for shortening papers from the observed change Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum the number of submitted papers of different length before and after the page limit imposition.

Using a detailed data set measuring the length of all submissions in a time range before and after the page Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum imposition at both journals, we evaluate the decision of authors. For AER we find no indication of a loss of longer papers. Instead, authors responded by shortening the text and reformatting their papers. For JEEA, in contrast, we estimate that the page-length policy Levoxyl (Levothyroxine Sodium)- Multum to near-complete loss of longer manuscripts.

These findings provide a revealed-preference measure of competition between journals, and indicate that a top-five journal has substantial monopoly power over submissions, unlike a highly respected journal one notch below.

At both journals we find that longer papers were more likely to receive a revise and resubmit verdict prior to page limits, suggesting that the loss of longer papers may have Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum a detrimental effect on quality at JEEA.

The results in Card and DellaVigna (2012) highlight the importance of evaluating editorial policies with state-of-the-art empirical methodologies. Going back to the nine facts in Card and DellaVigna (2013), the fifth fact is that the number of authors per paper has increased monotonically over time. In Oral Suspension (Simvastatin)- Multum early 1970s, Influenza Vaccine (Flucelvax Quadrivalent 2016-2017 Formula)- FDA quarters of articles were single-authored, and the average number of authors in a paper was 1.

Most recently (2011-2012), more than three quarters of papers have at least two authors and the mean number of authors is 2. This shift worked to partly offset the decrease in the number of articles published per year. Indeed, weighting each paper by the number of co-authors, the number ciaran johnson authors with a top-five journal article in a given year is somewhat higher today than in the 1970s or 1980s.

Sixth, papers published in the top five economics journals are highly cited. Among those published in the late 1990s, for example, the median article has about 200 Google Scholar citations.

As Figure 4 shows, citations for more recently published articles are lower, reflecting the fact that it takes time to accumulate citations. Interestingly, papers published in the 1970s and 1980s also have total citation counts below those of papers published in the 1990s, Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum the nature of the sources used by Google Scholar, citation practices of Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum authors, and other potential factors.

Median number of Google Scholar citations per Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum paper, by journal and year of publicationSeventh, citation-based rankings of the top-five journals reveal interesting patterns. In the earlier years of our sample, articles in Econometrica have about the same median citations as those in AER or JPE.

Starting in the 1990s, however, there is a Simvastatin (Oral Suspension)- Multum fall in the relative impact of Econometrica articles.

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