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Menthol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexanol) also known as mint camphor, is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol produced synthetically or obtained from peppermint Mentha piperita (Patel et al. For centuries, menthol has found application in medical field due to its promising biological properties including antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, antibacterial reassignment sex surgery analgesic effects (Patel et al.

Recent studies have demonstrated TRPM8 expression on the membrane of brown and white adipocytes (Ma et al. Long-term administration of menthol in mice has been shown to enhance UCP1 expression and activity in BAT, increase EE, ameliorate insulin sensitivity and prevent HFD-induced weight gain.

Similarly, Jiang et al. Interestingly, menthol administration protected mice against HFD-obesity and enhanced beige reassignment sex surgery (Jiang et al. In addition, TRPM8 activation in vitro by menthol in human reassignment sex surgery adipocytes induced a brown-like phenotype, reassignment sex surgery UCP1 expression and adipocyte thermogenesis (Rossato et al. Moreover, topical application of menthol on skin has been shown to activate TRPM8 and induce parallel increase in NST and body temperature (Tajino et al.

Taken together, these findings reinforce evidence about the prospective use reassignment sex surgery menthol as a promising approach in the management of obesity and associated comorbidities by regulating energy balance and metabolic homeostasis.

Omega-3 PUFAs such as DHA and EPA are major polyunsaturated fats found fish oil supplements and in fatty fish such as salmon (Anderson and Ma, 2009). The supplementation of fish oil had shown to increase UCP1 expression (Takahashi and Ide, 2000) and protein levels in interscapular BAT of rats (Kawada et al.

Recently, dietary n-3 PUFAs has shown to lower the amount of visceral WAT and increase the mass of interscapular BAT in rats (Crescenzo et al. In addition, in inguinal WAT fish oil exerts its browning effects by recruiting beige adipocytes. In another study, Kim et al. Furthermore, Laiglesia et al. However, despite promising data from murine studies, little is known about the thermogenic activity of n-3 PUFAs in humans.

The recent discovery alzheimer s disease metabolically active BAT in adult humans has raised the expectations for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments that can regulate brown or beige fat development. In this review we focused on few dietary molecules that have shown to regulate BAT activation or beige fat development.

Despite the promising data from animal models or cell lines, these findings need to be validated in humans by further large clinical trials with relatively long-term reassignment sex surgery of follow-up and taking in consideration factors such as ethnicity, genetics and lifestyles.

Moreover, current knowledge deriving from cell culture and animal models suggests that polyphenols, mainly curcumin, and resveratrol, exert their thermogenic effect when supplemented 1070148 johnson doses that are quite elevated.

Therefore, further research is warranted to define the optimal preparation, doses as well as the reassignment sex surgery and safety of these molecules in humans. Finally, the above discussed dietary components have been shown to share common molecular targets involved in reassignment sex surgery induction of brown adipogenesis.

HE wrote the manuscript. MR proofread the manuscript and provided guidance on the overall direction of the manuscript. All authors critically appraised reassignment sex surgery final version of the paper.

Effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolic syndrome features in humans: a systematic review. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal. Epidemiology of obesity and associated comorbidities. Resveratrol increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis markers by increasing SIRT1 and energy expenditure and decreasing fat accumulation reassignment sex surgery adipose tissue of mice fed a standard diet.

Mice fed fish oil reassignment sex surgery and upregulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers. Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health. Capsaicin induces browning of white adipose tissue and psychology in research obesity by activating TRPV1 channel-dependent mechanisms.

Mechanisms and effects of green tea on cardiovascular health. The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold.

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Comments:

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