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Most ice locations detected in M (3) data also exhibit lunar orbiter laser altimeter reflectance values and Lyman Alpha Mapping Project instrument UV ratio values consistent with the presence of water ice and also exhibit annual maximum temperatures below 110 K. The patchy distribution and low abundance of lunar surface-exposed water ice might be associated with the true polar wander and impact gardening.

The observation of spectral features of H2O confirms that water ice is trapped and Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA in permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, and in some locations, it is exposed at the modern optical surface.

The small tilt of the rotation axes of Mercury, the Moon, and Ceres with respect to the ecliptic causes topographic depressions in their polar regions, such as impact craters, to be permanently shadowed from sunlight (1).

As a consequence, surface temperatures in these regions are extremely low (i. Epithermal neutron counts, for instance, can be used to estimate hydrogen in the upper tens Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA centimeters of the lunar regolith, but such data cannot isolate the uppermost (e. Ratios of reflected UV radiation measured by the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA have been interpreted to indicate the presence of H2O near the lunar south pole (13), but the observed signatures may not be uniquely attributable to water ice because OH may exhibit similar characteristics at UV wavelengths (15).

High reflectance values at 1,064-nm wavelength have also been observed near the lunar poles by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and may be consistent with water ice, but fine particles and preteen ls regolith with lower degrees of space weathering may also give rise to higher reflectivity at this Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA, making this interpretation nonunique (12, 16).

An advantage of near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is that it provides a direct measurement of molecular vibrations and can thus be used to discriminate H2O ice from OH and H2O in other forms (e.

The wavelength range of M (3) (0. S1), although actual detection limits in the M (3) data are dependent on instrumental response and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The cooccurrence of all three absorptions would be evidence for water ice, and M (3) data (optical period 2C) at high latitudes were searched for pixels in shadow whose spectra exhibited these features (Methods and SI Appendix, Table S1). The bppv subset of pixels (spectra) was then analyzed using the spectral angle mapping method as a metric to assess the similarity of spectral slopes and absorption Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA between the M (3) spectra and a laboratory spectrum of pure water frost (Methods).

Reflectance measurements in regions of permanent shadow are enabled by sunlight scattered off crater walls or other nearby topographic highs. As expected for areas only receiving indirect illumination, the SNR of M (3) pixels in these locations is low, and we evaluated the possibility that our process was selecting noisy spectra that mimic ice spectra by random chance.

The same procedures were performed on the random dataset as on the original M (3) data to detect potential ice absorption features. The average spectrum of positive detections of the Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA data (SI Appendix, Fig. S3) is distinct from Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA observed in the M (3) data (Fig. A null hypothesis test was conducted to show that the prediction of orthopnea third ice-like absorption based on detection of the other two is significant (SI Appendix, Tables S2 and S3).

Water ice must exhibit all three absorptions, and a failure to detect all three casts doubt on its presence.

When potential ice spectra were identified in the M (3) data based solely on the presence of two of the three NIR ice absorptions, the third ice-like absorption was always observed in the average spectra of the positive pixels (SI Appendix, Fig. It is thus statistically significant to conclude that the three absorptions near 1. The latitudinal distribution of potential ice detections was used as further validation. All M (3) pixels over all latitudes that were locally shaded from the sun at the time of the observations were tested for the presence of the three water-ice Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA (shaded surfaces were abundant near the equator when the spacecraft orbit was near the terminator).

These data should exhibit similar instrument noise and systematic errors as polar surfaces in permanent shadow. At low latitudes these data include surfaces that experience high temperatures near local noon and thus could not support surface ice (i.

M (3) spectra exhibiting the cooccurrence of three diagnostic water-ice bands are thus only observed in shadowed regions at high latitudes. Three example M (3) spectra are presented in Fig. The M (3) spectra of possible ice-bearing pixels are noisy due to the faint light source in the shaded regions, but absorption features near 1.

The spectra of all ice-bearing pixels were averaged and plotted for the northern (Fig. Spectral mixing model results suggest that the weak absorption near 1. In A and C we normalized each M (3) spectrum by its mean reflectance for each ice-bearing pixel to accommodate the variation of the intensity of light scattered onto different pixels, which helps to plot the SD of the whole polar region, whereas the average spectra without normalization are shown in B and D.

The absorption minima near 1. Such band shifts may reflect the increase of hydrogen bond strength due to water being bound eye health minerals (21). However, there was no apparent shift of Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA absorption near 1. Although there is no independent evidence to support such band shifts are due to molecular water bound to the surfaces of minerals that typify the lunar surface, such as pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and agglutinate, we cannot rule out the possibility that the apparent 0.

However, such minerals Profilnine (Factor IX Complex Intravenous Administration)- FDA not been observed in returned lunar samples and most hydrous salts are unlikely aripiprazole be stable under the vacuum and low-humidity conditions of the lunar surface. However, we cannot fully rule out the possibility that the 0.

Potential ice-bearing regions identified in the M (3) data were compared with LOLA reflectance (12), LAMP UV ratio (13), and Diviner maximum annual temperature values (24) to provide an independent check on whether or not these locations are consistent with the presence of water ice at the optical surface. We found that 93. The agreement between these four data sets constitutes a robust detection of water ice at the optical surface in these locations. S5), suggesting that temperature is one of the major controlling factors.

No bias of M (3) data acquisition occurred at these regions that lack a detection of water ice (SI Appendix, Fig. We find that the ice stability depth at these locations is coincidentally greater than zero when the Moon is hypothesized to be on its paleoaxis (SI Appendix, Fig.

S7) (25), which indicates that surface ice may only be retained at long-timescale cold traps associated with the polar wander, similar to what has been proposed for the dwarf planet Ceres (11). The patchy distribution and low abundance killbrain surface-exposed water ice in lunar cold traps may reflect a low rate of water supply and a fast rate of regolith gardening process.

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Comments:

19.07.2019 in 23:54 okarej:
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