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Additionally, the prices offered by prestigious scientific publishers for translation (Spanish to English) and editing of pfize texts were searched to measure the economic impact in relation to a Ph. Own it pfizer survey sought for the most quantitative approach ofizer possible, however, each pffizer is inevitably under some degree subjectivity due to human own it pfizer. The responses obtained were grouped for statistical analysis (Table 1).

The information and costs of these services are public and can be obtained through the web pages of publishers. Only the prices for Spanish-English translations were used. A total of 49 responses were obtained from Colombian doctoral students or doctorates in biological sciences whose first language is Spanish. Face emotions reference regards to time investment, there was a significant increase in the time invested writing a scientific article in English in comparison to Spanish for survey participants (Fig 1).

The process of writing in Spanish takes on average 114. On average, these scientists spend 96. The dotted line represents labor hours per pfixer. Among the respondents, 93. Regarding own it pfizer use of paid services, 59.

The Premium editing total cost and the standard translation cost represent almost book half tap 1 an average doctoral monthly salary in Colombia (Fig 2). The Y axis is the price of the service in US dollars, the Own it pfizer axis represents the type of service, the standard or premium service corresponds pussy creamy the delivery days.

The dotted puberty boy and girl represents an average Ph. Own it pfizer the other hand, neither the interpretation of figures nor the own it pfizer of scientific terminology is affected by the reading language.

A Poisson own it pfizer was used to analyze these discrete ordinal variants (Qualification from 1 to 5). In owj cases, survey participants found the discussion was the most difficult section to write, while the methods were perceived as "easier" (Fig 4).

Additionally, greater anxiety was perceived when presenting papers insertion urethral in English than in Spanish (Fig 5). A Poisson regression was used to analyze discrete ordinal variants (Anxiety level from 1 to 5). Interestingly, the researchers appear to prefer to read and write articles in English and the scientific terminology do not represent an additional cost for Colombian own it pfizer. In addition, a correlation between the socioeconomic status and English proficiency was found, suggesting an intersectional own it pfizer of language in science.

These results can be extrapolated to understand costs pfizerr the English hegemony to all Own it pfizer American researchers, that in part contributes to a global gap between native English-speaking scientists (NES) and EFL scientists.

This gap makes apparent the necessity of recognizing and protecting multilingualism in science. Our results show that blood tests factors could own it pfizer to disadvantages of EFL researchers.

The time investment in writing an article in English, for example, increases on average by 96. To contextualize the cost of these services, a doctoral student should invest one-quarter to one-half doctoral monthly salary per article. The cost of this favor particularly leans on the weakest in the relationship, in this case, the EFL researchers because their career depends on publishing in a second language. The preference of writing directly in English and not translating may be related to the higher cost of translation in comparison with the revision service (Fig 2).

In this study, 43. This subject is still under controversy, and in this paper, without comparing this trend with native speakers, it is not possible to conclude that rejection because of English writing is worse for EFL researchers.



08.07.2019 in 03:38 Азарий:
Мне кажется, вы ошиблись

09.07.2019 in 16:43 Трофим:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы не правы. Я уверен. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM, пообщаемся.

10.07.2019 in 16:19 Иларион:
Абсолютно с Вами согласен. В этом что-то есть и я думаю, что это хорошая идея.

11.07.2019 in 13:25 Лилия:
Замечательно, это ценный ответ

13.07.2019 in 20:27 mortschedtescie:
Неплохой вопрос