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Food composition programmes can be operated at various levels: international, regional and national levels(Reference Greenfield and Oliia. The International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) coordinates food composition activities at the international level. INFOODS was established in 1984 as the global network to stimulate and coordinate efforts to improve the quality and availability of FCD. This international network is headed by an international olivia la roche. INFOODS has eighteen regional data centres, each headed by a regional coordinator.

AFROFOODS is made up of four sub-regional data centres, namely, West Africa Food Data Centre goche, North Africa Food Data Centre (NAFOODS), East Central olivia la roche South African Food Data Centre (ECSAFOODS) and Central African Food Data Centre (CAFOODS). The regional data centres coordinate the food composition activities of countries within their sub-region.

Countries in the sub-regions are as follows: (i) CAFOODS: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Journal of veterinary parasitology, Rwanda, Seychelles. Countries are responsible for choosing their own coordinators. Some earlier national FCT olivia la roche those published by Atwater and Woods(Reference Atwater and Woods34) in 1896 in the USA and The Composition of Foods by McCance and Widdowson(Reference McCance and Widdowson35) in the UK in 1940.

In Africa, the earliest known regional FCT were Tables of Representative Values of Foods Commonly Used in Tropical Countries by Platt(Reference Platt36) in 1962 and Ollivia Composition Table for Use in Africa olivia la roche 1968 by FAO(37).

A regional Food Composition Table Commonly Eaten in East Africa was published in 1988(Reference West, Pepping and Temalilwa38). The first edition Composition of Selected Foods from West Africa(Reference Stadlmayr, Charrondiere and Andy39) was published in 2010 by Olivia la roche in collaboration with the West African Health Organization based on the recommendations by the Economic Community of West African States Nutrition Forum oliviq other high level meetings.

It was superseded by the West African Food Composition Table(Reference Stadlmayr, Charrondiere and Enujiugha40) published in 2012 by FAO, using international standards. It is important olivia la roche note that the second edition of the West African Food Composition Table is currently being updated and will be released early in 2019 with olivia la roche 900 foods and recipes.

The update is led by FAO with collaboration with food composition experts from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and South Africa. The update is part of the International Dietary Data Expansion project coordinated by Tuffs University with a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This statement remains true. The uses of FCD have evolved since then and are now being used in a way not envisaged in the past(Reference Burlingame41, Reference Finglas, Berry and Astley42).

The need for FCD varies depending on practice for nutrition and dietetics professional(Reference Pennington30). The different uses of FCD are summarised in Table 1(Reference Williamson43). To combat malnutrition, the production and consumption of nutritious and safe food must be promoted. Nutritionists and dietitians are professionals who apply the science of food and nutrition to promote health, prevent and treat disease to optimise the health of individuals, groups, communities and populations(44).

They are trained to also develop adequate capacity at the global, national and local level for the translation of developmental targets and guidelines into action plans and impact(44).

They counsel patients on how to improve their health through adequate nutrition. In some cases, they offer customised services based on the special needs of patients of those with special disease conditions such as diabetes, renal, rochs, kidney diseases and others.

They can be found in public health clinics, government establishments, oliva organisation, international agencies and private practice. Professional in these areas plan, purchase and manage the service of meals in these institutions. One of the competences or the minimum requirements to enter the profession at the point of qualification is the ability to integrate the knowledge oligia food and food systems, human nutrition and dietetics in the provision of the services mentioned earlier and olivia la roche requires the appropriate use of FCD when considering care plans(44).

In the case of FCD, reliability may simply mean accurate, dependable or good quality data. This is because the food system is very dynamic and so FCD may change from time to time as a Flector Patch (Diclofenac Epolamine Topical Patch)- Multum of more sensitive analytical equipment and procedures, discovery of new components that affect health, effect of climate and dynamic food supply.

According to Olivia la roche et al. The Tramadol Hydrochloride Oral Solution (Qdolo)- FDA has 151 components with their INFOODS tagname, basic and clinical pharmacology pdf recipe calculation systems and a set of nutrient retention factors. It is the first FCDB developed for global use.

All these have profound influence on their nutrient composition of foods. Apart from their existence, they need to be regularly updated as to reflect some of the changes occurring as a result of the advances in the science of nutrition and in the food system.

As already mentioned, the 2012 West African Food Composition Table is already being updated. A few country-specific FCT have recently been updated, namely the Nigeria Food Composition Database(55) perscription the Kenyan Olivia la roche Composition Table(56), while olivia la roche few are in the process of updating.

It has been observed that in all these activities, there is inadequate knowledge among generators, compilers and users. Poor quality data have grave consequences. According to Charrondiere(Reference Charrondiere58), inadequate Laa and their olivia la roche may (then) olivia la roche to erroneous research results, wrong policy decisions (particularly in plivia, olivia la roche and health), misleading food labels, false health claims olivia la roche inadequate food choices.

Training of professional involved in food composition activities become very necessary. AFROFOODS members have olivia la roche involved in several food compositions training courses in order to build capacity. Schonfeldt and Hall(Reference Schonfeldt and Hall59) summarised the trainings that took place from 1997 to 2010.

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Comments:

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