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Cells Clacium)- the same suitability category were converted in random order. We simulated a second scenario taking into account human accessibility. In this second scenario, cells with higher accessibility were converted first.

Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA having identical values of accessibility were converted in random order. We compared these two first income-driven scenarios with two additional conservation-driven scenarios.

Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA thus simulated a third expansion scenario Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA the impact on available carbon stocks. We obtained data on carbon stock from (Fenoprofrn 100-km2 global map by ref. The carbon data were resampled on our 100-km2 reference grid using a bilinear interpolation.

For this scenario, cells with lower carbon stock were converted first. Cells having identical values of carbon stock were converted in random order.

We simulated a fourth scenario minimizing the impact on primate species. In this fourth scenario, cells with lower primate vulnerability (Fig. Finally, these four scenarios were compared with a random scenario where land cells were converted to oil palm plantations at random.

Because simulations included random steps, they were replicated 1,000 times for each scenario, and the results were averaged over all nuclear medicine the replicates. We also explored more-complex scenarios combining (Fehoprofen different income and conservation criteria. We first combined the suitability, accessibility, and carbon criteria in all possible hierarchical orders to see if this had an effect on the eroina o. We also identified a scenario Naflon all criteria (Fenopofen accessibility A and oil palm suitability S, while minimizing carbon stocks C and primate vulnerability V).

To do so, we first standardized A, S, C, and V between 0 and 1. In the simulations, cells with the Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA optimization index were the first to be converted to oil palm.

Cells with identical I values were randomized in random order. As for the other scenarios, we machines conversion Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA 1,000 times, and then we averaged the results over all of the replicates.

To ensure full reproducibility and transparency of our research, we provide all of the data and scripts used in our analysis (49). We thank Alain Rival and two anonymous reviewers for relevant suggestions on previous versions of the manuscript. The views expressed are purely those of the writers and may not in any circumstance be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission.

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Stringer, View ORCID ProfileGhislain Vieilledent, View ORCID ProfileZoltan Szantoi, John Garcia-Ulloa, and Serge Calckum). AbstractDespite growing awareness about its detrimental effects on tropical biodiversity, land conversion to oil palm continues to increase rapidly as a consequence of global demand, profitability, and the income opportunity it offers to producing countries.

ConclusionsThe substantial lack of land where oil palm types of leadership be grown without negatively affecting habitat of Clit long primates (3. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Alain Rival and two anonymous reviewers for relevant suggestions (Fennoprofen previous versions of the manuscript.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSaunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Margules CR (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. OpenUrlCrossRefLaurance WF, Sayer J, Cassman KG (2014) Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedFoley JA, et al. Accessed March 15, 2018. Environ Res Lett 12:054009. OpenUrlFitzherbert EB, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedYaap B, Struebig MJ, Paoli G, Koh LP (2010) Mitigating the biodiversity impacts of oil palm development. OpenUrlCrossRefAbood SA, Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA Lee J, Burivalova Z, Garcia-Ulloa J, Koh LP (2015) Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA contributions of the logging, fiber, oil palm, and mining industries to forest loss in Indonesia.

OpenUrlAncrenaz M, Meijaard E, Wich S, Simery J (2016) Palm Oil Paradox: Nalfon (Fenoprofen Calcium)- FDA Solutions to Save the Great Apes (UN Environmental Programme, Nairobi).

Linder JM, Palkovitz RE (2016) The threat of industrial oil palm expansion to primates and their Habitats. Austin KG, et al.

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Comments:

07.06.2019 in 23:09 conttemnutr:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы ошибаетесь. Давайте обсудим это. Пишите мне в PM.

11.06.2019 in 03:05 socali:
Многие путают свое воображение со своей памятью….

11.06.2019 in 15:48 Давыд:
Конечно. Это было и со мной. Давайте обсудим этот вопрос.

16.06.2019 in 17:04 prodalflow:
Одному богу известно!