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Models synthesized in this studyResultsOur main economic impact metric is the SCC, the economic cost of emitting one additional ton of CO2 (i. The percentage change in the SCC due to tipping points collectively and individually. ConclusionIn this paper, we have synthesized an emerging but fragmented literature modeling the economic impacts of climate tipping points. DiscussionOur research is subject to a number of limitations, which help to identify future research needs.

MethodsThe meta-analytic IAM is described in complete detail muscular atrophy spinal SI Appendix. Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Growth, and Population Projections. Atmospheric Chemistry and Warming. Country-Level Damages from SLR. Flood and Drought Due to the Indian Summer Monsoon. Change HistorySeptember 1, 2021: The classifications have been updated. The authors declare no competing interest.

This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2014).

IPCC, Summary for Policymakers in Global Warming of 1. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report muscular atrophy spinal the Intergovernmental Panel muscular atrophy spinal Climate Change, C. Stern, Economics: Current climate models are grossly misleading.

Ciscar, Integrating tipping points into climate impact assessments. Yuan, Tipping elements and climate-economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment.

Lenton, Environmental tipping points. Traeger, Watch your step: Optimal policy in a tipping climate. Lenton, Stochastic integrated assessment of climate tipping points indicates the need for strict climate policy. Kverndokk, Optimal climate policy under the possibility of muscular atrophy spinal catastrophe.

Lontzek, Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction. Miguel, Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Diaz, Estimating muscular atrophy spinal damages from sea level rise with the coastal impact and adaptation model (CIAM).

Nordhaus, Economics of the disintegration of the Greenland ice replens. Stocker et al J.

Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, T. Tol, Shutting down the thermohaline circulation. Schaefer, Economic impacts of carbon dioxide and methane released from thawing permafrost. Kessler, Estimating the economic impact of the permafrost carbon muscular atrophy spinal. Richels, Merge: Muscular atrophy spinal Integrated Assessment Muscular atrophy spinal for Global Climate Change in B nf and Environment (Springer, 2005), pp.



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