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Absorption spectra of CDOM and salinity from these samples were analyzed within 2 days. The behaviour of DOM during ice growth was studied during a 144 hour long freezing experiment at the Finnish Institute of Marine Research.

Despite the additions of carbon, there was no significant difference in CDOM, Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA or the molecular mass of Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA among the tanks (data not shown).

Therefore the tanks are treated as replicates in this study. All samples were filtered with 0. In addition to tank experiments, natural ice was investigated in this study.

Ice and water samples were filtered (0. Disalcid (Salsalate)- Multum grown ice was sampled on 12 March 2007, from the same location as the young natural ice.

Under-ice water was sampled from the same location, but on 14 March 2007 from 2m depth using a Limnos water sampler (Limnos, Finland). CDOM and salinity measurements were carried out within 2 days. Salinities prior to LC-SEC analysis of the samples from exp08 and nat08 were adjusted with ultrapure water (Milli-Q) to a salinity of 1 and measured with a VWR EC300 conductivity meter.

Three replicates of each sample were measured and corrected with an ultrapure water (Milli-Q) blank at room temperature. Before all measurements, samples as well as an ultrapure water (Milli-Q) blank were allowed to warm up to room temperature. From the 14 samples measured, the number of fluorophores was determined by a split-half validation and a residual analysis (Reference Stedmon and BroStedmon and Bro, 2008).

Then the enrichment Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA, Dcfor DOM was calculated as where subscripts i and w refer to ice and Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA, respectively (modified after Weeks and Ackley, 1982). Glyceryl trinitrate Equation (3), the identical behaviour of DOM and salinity results in an enrichment factor of 0.

For Dc of natural samples of nat08, ice samples were related to the Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA water samples on the sampling day. No Dc value is calculated for nat07, because of Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA salinity values in the under-ice water. LC-SEC was performed using a silica-based TSK G3000SWxl column (7. A phosphate buffer (3. A baseline correction was done for all samples by normalizing the chromatogram to the value anal family 12 Regadenoson Injection (Lexiscan)- Multum. In this study, the retention time, R t (min), between 12 and 20 min was used directly to describe the molecular size distribution of DOM.

In LC-SEC, molecules Nephramine (Essential Amino Acid Injection)- FDA large molecular mass have short retention times, and the retention time increases for molecules with decreasing molecular mass.

Prior to LC-SEC analysis, the salinities of under-ice water samples of exp08 and nat08 were adjusted with Milli-Q water to 1, equivalent to the salinity found in the ice samples of exp08. In order to quantify the behaviour of DOM in Baltic Sea ice during initial freezing, a short-term experiment was carried out (exp07). These results show that a CDOM,350 was enriched relative to salinity in ice, but in water, a CDOM,350 behaved conservatively. Error bars Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA the standard deviation between replicates (a).

Characterization coaguchek xs roche samples in respect of sample type (experimental or natural ice or under-ice and initial water), sampling site and salinities. After 12 hours of ice Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA, the a CDOM,350 of ice was again lower than in the under-ice water (Fig.

We also studied the behaviour of DOM during a longer period of ice growth (exp08). Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA, Dc values showed that CDOM was enriched relative to salinity in ice, but not in under-ice water (Fig. The quantitative enrichment of DOM was additionally assessed by examining the fluorophoric DOM in natural (nat08) and experimentally grown ice (exp08). For these samples, the PARAFAC analysis identified three fluorophores.

Fluorophore 1 (C1) had excitation maxima Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA 240 and Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA nm, with the emission maximum at 484 nm (Fig. Fluorophore 2 (C2) had excitation maxima at 240 and 305 nm, with the emission maximum at 404 nm. Fluorophore C3 had excitation maxima at 240 and 280 nm, with the emission maximum at 340 nm.

PARAFAC modelled fluorescent components of experimentally and naturally grown ice (exp08, nat08). For both datasets, three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA. For each fluorophore the maximal Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide Capsule)- FDA intensity was used to calculate Dc values (Equation (3)).

In both naturally (nat08) and experimentally grown ice (exp08), fluorophores C1 and C2 were significantly enriched in ice, but not in water samples (Fig. The enrichment factor Dc for the salinity-normalized fluorescent maxima of the three fluorophores (Fig. For component 3, no significant difference was found. Error bars indicate the standard deviation between replicates.

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