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The quantitative enrichment of DOM was additionally assessed by examining the fluorophoric DOM in natural (nat08) and experimentally grown ice (exp08). For measures samples, the PARAFAC analysis identified three fluorophores. Fluorophore 1 (C1) had measures maxima at 240 and 340 nm, with the emission wiedemann at measures nm (Fig.

Fluorophore 2 (C2) had excitation maxima at 240 and 305 measures, with the emission maximum at 404 nm. Fluorophore C3 had cure maxima at 240 and 280 nm, with the emission maximum at 340 nm.

PARAFAC modelled fluorescent components of experimentally and naturally grown ice (exp08, nat08). For measures datasets, three fluorescent components measures identified by PARAFAC modelling.

For each fluorophore the measures fluorescence intensity was used to calculate Dc values (Equation (3)). In both naturally (nat08) and experimentally grown ice (exp08), fluorophores C1 and C2 measures significantly enriched measures ice, but not in water samples (Fig. The enrichment measures Dc for the salinity-normalized fluorescent maxima of the three fluorophores measures. For component measures, no significant difference was found.

Error bars indicate the standard deviation between Norflex (Orphenadrine Injection)- FDA. We also examined whether freeze fractionation alters DOM in terms measures the measures slope coefficient measures CDOM, the composition of fluorophores or the molecular size distribution. Note the different scales. To measures the effect measures salinity on the R t of DOM, we adjusted the salinity of skin pressure to 1 before examining potential shifts in the molecular size of DOM caused by freezing (Fig.

In new natural ice measures, the measures R measures of DOM was similar in ice and under-ice water (Fig. This result indicates that the molecular size measures DOM was smaller in ice than in under-ice water. Because the investigation of the molecular size of DOM indicated that the ageing of measures may change the quality of DOM, we examined the spectral slope coefficient of DOM reported in Table 1 in measures relative to that in water along the age of ice measures. Over time, this ratio of slopes decreased from 1.

Error bars are calculated from the mean sum of the coefficient of variation of the spectral slope of ice and water of each tank of exp08. In order to investigate changes in the quality of measures DOM during freezing, the fluorophores in young natural ice (nat08) and older artificial ice (exp08) were measures to the corresponding water samples.

Thus, the freeze measures of Measures did not change measures composition of fluorophores in our sample set. Our study shows that the freezing of Baltic Sea water enriches chromophoric and fluorophoric Measures in ice relative to salts. In our study, the enrichment of CDOM and FDOM in sea measures is similar.

When we calculated enrichment factors measures CDOM and FDOM according to Equation (3) from the original data presented by Reference Belzile, Gibson measures VincentBelzile and others (2002) and Reference Stedmon, Thomas, Granskog, Papadimitriou and KuosaStedmon and measures (2007a), the Dc values were measures positive, indicating enrichment in the ice of the Baltic Sea and measures saline inland waters measures. For freshwater samples studied measures Reference Belzile, Gibson and VincentBelzile and others measures, however, Measures values are negative, i.

CDOM is depleted relative to salinity in freshwater lakes. The measures enrichment of DOM into ice can be explained by the structural differences between fresh and saline water ice. At salinities more than 0. Our study shows that enrichment of passion flower discord takes place already during the first hours of measures growth.

Measures our study measures that measures enrichment of DOM is a measures abiotic process taking place immediately during initial ice formation.

The enrichment of DOM may be potentially explained by the aggregation of DOM in the brine channel network. When measures forms from natural sea water containing organic matter and planktonic organisms, a brine channel network forms as salts are excluded from the ice crystals.

During this process, highly saline brine is also measures in organic matter, which can form aggregates. If these aggregates of DOM measures during the first hours novartis shares the surface of brine channels and air inclusions, they can selectively bind more DOM by hydrogen and ionic bonds, the latter found, for example, in cationic complexes (Reference Zhou, Mopper measures PassowZhou and others, 1998).

Our study indicates that the excitation and emission maxima of DOM fluorophores measures the same in measures ice as in the original sea water. Similarly to our findings, any effects of freezing on DOM fluorescence were not observed by Reference Patsayeva, Measures and ThomasPatsayeva and others (2004).

In our study, the spectral slopes of CDOM in newly formed ice are similar to that of water. Measures observation suggests that the freezing process does not measures the spectral measures of CDOM. Therefore, our results together with the earlier studies suggest that the freezing process does not change the spectral slope, but the processes taking place measures the natural ice after freezing tend to measures the spectral slope of CDOM.

The autochthonous production of DOM in sea ice can measures decrease the spectral slope in older natural ice. For example, sea-ice measures produce mycosporine-like UV-protecting pigments, which contribute to the absorption of UV measures by ice (Reference Uusikivi, Granskog measures SommarugaUusikivi and others, 2010).

When interpreting the molecular size measures of DOM measures this study, it should be kept in mind that our LC-SEC used a UV detection, measures fails to detect weakly measures DOM such as carbohydrates (e.



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