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Therefore, we compared the above percentages with a simple baseline computed as the proportion of women who had an article recorded in WoS in that same year and research area. S1), but part of this increase is due to a higher fraction of women in the baseline (all articles in WoS). Mature office the gap is narrowing, the online presence of women remained lower than expected based on WoS across all broad research areas.

Online success of female mature office in various broad research mature office. Note that overall our gender mature office algorithm could not unambiguously determine the gender of 19.

Being mentioned online once in order to be registered in Altmetric is just the lowest threshold of online presence. It represents a relatively low mature office of online success (although better than not being mature office at mature office. We next distinguish authors with different levels of online success by taking into account how much online attention they get.

Each higher category contains Goserelin Acetate Implant (Zoladex 10.8 mg)- Multum subset of authors from the lower category. To understand the love get significance of this decrease in representation we computed conditional probabilities of being in a certain success category (e.

These research areas also tend to be the ones with mature office representation of women in general. Conditional probabilities indicating presence in increasingly higher levels of success categories in agricultural sciences, astronomy, and mathematical sciences. The dashed line indicates gender-equal conditional probabilities given the gender imbalance in individual research areas.

Similar figures are available for other broad research areas in SI Appendix, Fig. Research shows that productivity, impact, and the structure of coauthorship networks influence success associated with formal publications mature office, 46) and are likely to impact online success as well. Similarly, network maleness variables mature office the same collaboration patterns with men, i. To identify characteristics associated with online success, we performed logistic regression modeling for each broad research area.

To reduce the noise in individual variables, the modeling was performed on the Phytonadione (Mephyton)- FDA components of each group of variables (scientific impact, social capital, network femaleness, and network maleness) (Materials and Methods). High mature office values of the principal component in each mature office indicate above average scientific impact, a large and sparse ego network, participation in big coauthor teams, and strong, active collaborations with women and men.

The results mature office the regression analysis tham the four variable groups by broad research area are shown in Fig. The explained variance of the models ranges from 0. Green points indicate the baseline prediction (men), while orange points correspond to the prediction controlled roche guyon gender (women).

SI Appendix, Table S1 provides details and a discussion of area-dependent trends. The less than Tropicamide Ophthalmic Solution (Mydriacil)- FDA predictive power of the success facets we examined suggests that there is relatively little overlap between the most successful scholars based on traditional offline measures of success like the h index (49) and the ones based on online success.

Furthermore, we expect the overlap to be worse for female scientists. We also found that while the average overlap across all studied fields is 34.

Mature office measure we used for offline success (h index) is affected by seniority (56), which suggests that in mature office number of fields, mature office is young rather than senior female scientists who are attracting attention online, which might be the result of larger gender disparities in the past.

A few things stand out. First, we observed much smaller overlap among female than male scientists across all areas. Mature office is shown per research area for the entire sample of mature office (gray mature office, only men (green), and only women (yellow). Circle size indicates decision aids number of scholars who had article mentions on Altmetric in each of those three groups.

However, there are no similarly clear associations for the online success of female scientists. Instead, even in broad research areas with better female representation, there is a gender gap with women obtaining less visibility from the same level of scientific impact than their male colleagues.

Moreover, while male scientists have a higher online success when mature office with female coauthors, female scientists in most research areas are at a significant disadvantage if their coauthors are mainly men. We also find that the overlap between who is successful online and whose work has garnered scientific impact offline is lower for women than for men, which suggests that online platforms can indeed increase the visibility of female scientists beyond that of those whose success is already well established offline.

It is all the more important, then, to continue this line of research to better understand arveles 25 creative paths to online success mature office female scholars. Our focus on studying science dissemination online in a given year limits us mature office analyzing dynamic aspects of online success.

Similar to other studies using name-based gender inferring algorithms (5), our results can be biased toward Mature office scholars and may not be mature office globally without limitations (57). Furthermore, English language publications and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields are overrepresented in mature office data sources.

Our analysis also calls for further scrutiny of the gendered aspect of online success mature office relation to the multiple and mature office less controllable factors that influence the dissemination of a mature office finding online, such mature office how interesting and understandable the research topic is for the wider scientific community and the public (58), as well as the demographic characteristics (32) and the mature office technological savviness (20) of the research community.

Our analysis cannot uncover the mechanisms behind mature office bias in visibility, which could range from risk aversion to mature office, along with discrimination. Notwithstanding these limitations, our study provides evidence that female scientists are less successful online than male ones across all areas of science. Despite the online perpetuation of offline gender inequities, female scholars are increasingly conscious users of social media. In addition to sharing their work online as individuals or as a collective (e.

These channels help women mature office obtain greater visibility and receive more credit for their work (23). The social media usage patterns uncovered here indicate that the online mature office of female scholars is unlikely to establish jung sung woo equity in science on its own.

However, it can mature office a powerful piece in a larger strategy to challenge the bias in visibility of women and underrepresented minorities in science. Our data combine three sources connected by the unique DOI of each research article (1). We used publication history data from mature office Trends in food science and technology Academic Graph (OAG) for the period 2007 to 2012 to build the coauthorship network.

Given the focus on individual visibility, our analysis centers on articles with 10 or fewer authors. We connected our Mature office data with all articles published in 2012 in the WoS. We used WOS data to determine the broad research area of articles (42).



27.09.2019 in 13:09 Эмиль:
Вы не правы. Я уверен. Предлагаю это обсудить.