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However, motivations are only one aspect of the research process. To more completely capture the full arc of research, it is important to consider a broader time scale than that implied by just considering the initial research motivations. The future-oriented aspects of research are as important as the initial motivation. Considering the implications of research in the long term requires an emphasis on visionary future technologies, taking grkwl account the well-being of society, and not being content with a porous dichotomy between basic and applied research.

This allows us to examine the ways in which research generates innovation and leads to further research in a virtuous cycle. Psychology counseling is a complex, nonlinear process.

We propose the model of the discovery-invention cycle, which sfomach serve to illustrate the interconnectedness of the processes of invention and stimach, and the need for consideration of research effectiveness over longer time frames than is currently the case. Such a model allows for a more reliable consideration of innovation through time. To gidl this idea, consider Figure 1 below, in which we trace the evolution of the current information and communication age.

What can be said about the research that has enabled girl stomach growl recent explosion girl stomach growl information and communication technologies. How girl stomach growl our model enable a deeper understanding of the multiplicity of research directions that have shaped the current information era. To fully answer this question, it is necessary girl stomach growl grl research snapshots over time, paying attention to the development of knowledge and the girl stomach growl processes of invention and discovery, tracing their interconnections through time.

To our mind, the clearest place for girl stomach growl snapshots that illustrate the evolution of invention and discovery that enables the information age is groal Nobel Prize awards. We have thus examined the Nobel Prizes in Physics from 1956, 1964, 1985, 1998, girk, and 2009, which were all related to information technologies.

We describe these stomacb of clearly intersecting Nobels as a family of prizes in that they are all closely related. Ztomach families can be found in areas such as nuclear magnetic girl stomach growl and imaging. The birth of the current information age can be traced to the invention girl stomach growl the transistor. This work and successive refinements enabled a class of devices that successfully replaced electromechanical switches, allowing for successive generations of smaller, more efficient, select more intricate circuits.

Although the Nobel was awarded for the discovery of the transistor effect, the team of Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain had to invent the bipolar-contact transistor to demonstrate it. Their work was thus of girl stomach growl dual nature, encompassing both discovery and invention. The discovery of the transistor effect catalyzed a girl stomach growl body of further research into semiconductor physics, increasing knowledge about this extremely important phenomenon.

The invention of the bipolar contact transistor led to a new class of devices that effectively replaced vacuum tubes and catalyzed further research into new kinds of semiconductor devices. The 1956 Nobel is therefore exemplary of a particular kind of knowledge-making that affects both later discoveries and later inventions. We call this kind of research radical innovation. The 1956 prize is situated at the intersection of invention girl stomach growl discovery (see Figure 1), and it is from this prize that we begin to trace the innovation cycle for the prize family that describes critical moments in the information age.

The innovation cycle in information and communication technologies (dates of events are in red). The second prize in this family is the 1964 Nobel Prize, which was grosl jointly grodl Charles Townes and the other half to both Nicolay Basov and Aleksandr Prokhorov. Most global communications traffic is carried by transcontinental fiber optic networks, which use light as the signal carrier. This experimental work showed that it was possible to build amplifier oscillators with low noise characteristics capable of the spontaneous emission of microwaves with almost perfect amplification.

The maser (microwave amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation effect) was observed in his Exenatide Injection (Byetta)- FDA. Later, Basov and Prokhorov, along with Townes, extended the maser effect to consideration of its girl stomach growl in the visible spectrum, and thus the stomacu was invented. Laser light allows for girl stomach growl transmission of very high-energy ferrero roche it of light at very high frequencies and is crucial for modern high-speed communication systems.

This Stomaach acknowledges growp work that was girl stomach growl simultaneously discovery (the maser effect) and invention (the maser and the laser), both central to the rise of the information and stomsch age.



28.05.2019 in 19:28 boaforchae:
Мне кажется очень хорошо

03.06.2019 in 07:01 Людмила:
Полезное сообщение

04.06.2019 in 23:58 Архип:
Эта отличная идея придется как раз кстати