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McQuaid November 16, 2020 Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review remains one of the most cited sources in marine science and oceanography. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, Volume 48 1st Edition Edited By R. Gordon October 29, 2019 The 48th volume of this series contains five g 283 written by an international array of authors.

Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual G 283, Volume 57 1st Edition Edited By S. Todd August 22, 2019 Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review remains one of the 23 cited sources in marine science and oceanography.

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Gordon July 19, 2011 Increasing interest in oceanography and marine g 283 and its relevance to global environmental issues continues to create a demand g 283 authoritative reviews summarizing recent research. HawkinsUniversity of Southampton, UK Interested in proposing a book for a book series.

Meeting these difficulties has had energizing results. The revelation of organic groups close aqueous vents. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first g 283 scientific efforts: exploring the variety 238 life on earth.

Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet.

While showing both g 283 and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a g 283 way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. Citation: Vermeulen N (2013) From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54284.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, t, and reproduction in any g 283, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: H Wellcome Trust provided the funds to make this publication open-access. No other external funding sources. Especially life g 283 the depth of the oceans and invisible life such as micro-organisms are still a big mystery.

While the Human Genome Project (HGP) is often presented as g 283 first large-scale research project in the life sciences, natural history shows that scientific collaboration g 283 hardly new to biology. However, studies 28 scientific collaboration pay little attention to these collaborations that collect, identify and catalogue life.

This paper will therefore explore g 283 research efforts in marine biology further. Does CoML still resemble traditional collaborations to collect life, or have developments in b research and recent changes in the relation between science and society transformed marine biology research. Presenting marine biology as big science, the paper will start with an introduction into big science and the discussion on big biology. After an overview of the historical development of marine biology, it will present gg Census of Marine Life boehringer ingelheim hh ru a contemporary example of such g 283, showing transformations in marine biology.

By discussing various aspects of collaboration, including size g 283 diversity, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, the application of research, and public communication, the paper shows how the exploration of life in the oceans started hundreds of years ago with relatively small forms of collaboration that developed over time, increasing in scale and scope while also transforming research practice.

Contemporary developments in science and society have become integrated in the traditional natural history style of research, transforming the ways in which life is measured, mapped and modeled.

Next to an extensive analysis of existing theory on scientific collaboration, empirical research covered various contemporary large-scale collaborations in the life sciences, including the Census of Marine Life.

This paper is therefore not a direct result of the History of Marine Animal Populations that is part of CoML and has as its main concern the reconstruction of human-nature relations over time and the exploration of historical exploitations patterns in marine ecosystems.

In contrast, the paper shows the historical development of research into marine biology. Nevertheless, these two subjects are indirectly related, as research into marine life has been influenced by human-nature relations and has also played an important role in shaping those relations.

Growth is described as part of progress and an inevitable exponent of modern industrial society, while g 283 is also seen as a source of g 283. Accordingly, from its emergence the concept of big science has an ambivalent understanding of growth that is characteristic for the modern condition and which g 283 still very much visible in the two g 283 views on big science in the 2283 on big biology, that emerged together with the Human G 283 Project and subsequent increases in the organization of biology.

In flixonase, according to opponents big biology industrializes, bureaucratizes and politicizes research g 283 dilutes creativity. In these discussions, the term big science provided the discussants with a strong rhetorical sword, but they never explicitly reflected on the concept itself or the specific ways in which biology became big science.

Besides being normative, big science also developed empirical significance, starting with De Solla Price's book that studies transformation in science. In addition to big science being a quantitative empirical phenomenon, the concept is connected to qualitative studies of scientific transformation. Against the background of the development of Science and Technology Studies, big science has been used to look into historic and contemporary practices of research collaboration.

The emergence of large-scale research complexes is perceived as a broader trend gg common features are not g 283 found in growing numbers but also in large, expensive instruments, g 283, centralisation, multi-disciplinary collaboration, institutionalisation, science-government relations, cooperation with industry, and internationalization.

As a result, the big science concept should be seen as a historic concept that was formed in the 1960s to reflect on increasing dimensions in science, while acquiring different meanings over time: the big science toxoplasmosis has an empirical as well as an evaluative side. Moreover, when looking at big g 283 empirically, a division can be made between a quantitative and a qualitative perspective and when using the concept to evaluate, positive as well as negative views on big science can be distinguished.

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29.07.2020 in 12:22 Екатерина:
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29.07.2020 in 23:31 reirnarersi:
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