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Framing effects occur when information rat presented in different ways, leading to different interpretations of the context and decision. At the beginning of the game, participants were randomly assigned to groups of eight players.

Within these groups, half of the players were randomly assigned to the role of allocator (i. The transfer made by the first mover will be made visible to all the other participants. These amounts were presented simultaneously on the same page. Meanwhile, the remaining three allocators moved to another page where they were informed that they had not been selected to be the first mover. SMs were then asked to indicate how much they would contribute conditional on each of these possible FM transfers.

Fig 1 shows Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum screenshot of the page that SMs were presented with, outlining these instructions. SMs indicated their preferred transfers sequentially in response to each of the six possible FM transfers. Hence, we obtained vectors of responses (SM zentel for Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum of these six possible anchors.

Table 1 shows the sample size for each anchor. Fig 2 shows a sample screenshot of one of these choices offered to SMs. As a side achalasia, we mention that the strategy method is usually used non-sequentially, i. Given our interest in identifying whether subjects would anchor their decisions to the first amount they were presented with, we used a sequential approach.

Only when choices were Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum be made, was this done sequentially. Participants then indicated how much they expected other SMs in their group to contribute on average. Finally, they were asked to provide basic socio-economic information, including their gender, age omron income. We expect that redistribution behaviour will be positively influenced by female gender (e. A custom, web application was used to allow participants to play the game interactively with the other members of their group at the same time.

The web application was developed specifically for this experiment primarily using the programming languages PHP, HTML, and Javascript. It was hosted on Amazon EC2 while the experiment was running. Typically, group-based studies using MTurk subjects do not provide interactive platforms for players to play simultaneously with each other.

To identify anchoring effects on conditional transfer amounts, firstly, we compare the overall contributions by anchor using a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test, which is a rank-based nonparametric test used to compare the medians of two or more groups, and is considered the nonparametric Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum of the one-way ANOVA.

Then, given that we have repeated observations (six) per SM, we assume that observations varicose the same individual are correlated and hence we opt to use mixed effects regression analyses on the full data set Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum SM strategy-method transfers, with clustering of standard errors at the individual level.

The analyses in this paper were conducted using the statistical packages Stata 15 and R. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to recruit participants for this experiment.

MTurk experiments generally involve low stakes, as participants play from their computers or smartphones, which usually takes less than ten minutes. This allows experimenters to decrease the stakes without compromising the results. After providing informed consent, participants were presented with the experimental instructions, followed by two questions testing comprehension.

It was explained that continued participation in the experiment depended on correctly answering both questions. Data was collected from a total of 118 groups of Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum, with eight in each group (four allocators and four recipients). Given the focus on this paper on anchoring effects, all results and analyses in this paper pertain solely to SM decisions Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum using a glucophage strategy method.

For the final pay outs, we always divided the sum of all transfers made among the actual number of recipients in the group, regardless of the number of dropouts. Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum start by examining the data at the aggregate level, presenting an overview Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum social information on redistribution decisions. The distribution Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum SM contributions in response to each possible FM transfer can be found in S2 Appendix, in addition to a line graph showing mean SM transfers in response to each of these FM transfers.

Overall, mean SM transfers are found to increase modestly with FM transfers. However, additional pairwise paired t-tests and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests between mean SM responses (with Bonferroni adjustments to account for multiple testing) suggest that there are some significant pairwise differences in SM transfers in response to some FM transfers.

Fig 3 presents mean SM contributions at each possible FM transfer level disaggregated by IA. To identify whether there is a statistically significant difference between Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum transfers Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum response to each FM transfer by anchor, we use a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test, to compare the medians of the anchoring groups. This shows that anchoring only impacts decisions made in by roche bobois to selfish FM transfers.

However, it can also be observed that mean SM transfers do not increase linearly with the roche ireland of the anchor. Our results agree with the latter findings that extreme anchors have weaker anchoring effects. To verify if the differences in average responses to FM transfers by anchor are meaningful, we carry out mixed effects regression analyses on the full data set of individual SM strategy-method transfers.

In the models, we include the FM transfer amounts that SMs provided responses to, as well as key Etonogestrel Implant (Implanon)- Multum influences on behaviour (age, gender and income).



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