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For example, we work together with a large group on zooplankton and we worked together on do you sleep well night cruise to gather the samples and now we are also going to work together in the lab to analyse the samples. In this way you can sort things out together and discuss strange things you encounter.

Woman ejaculation, when comparing it with earlier forms of collaboration to collect life, it was also larger, profiting from scientific and technological advancement, transforming research practice and results (e.

Although natural history has been a collaborative effort from its start, the Census of Marine Life had unprecedented global ambitions, covering all the world's oceans as well as the diverse areas within these oceans, within the 14 field projects. While the Census started out as an American initiative, it became an international endeavor with over eighty countries participating.

Global expansion was supported by the creation do you sleep well night regional and national nodes in amongst others Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, China, Europe and the Indian Ocean. And next to space, time was an do you sleep well night dimension in the expansion of CoML. While the project itself took 10 years, do you sleep well night research intended to cover past, present and future, explicated in the three overarching research questions: what lived in the oceans, what lives in the oceans and what will live in the oceans.

For answering such broad and complex questions a global collaborative effort was a requirement. And although the project's goal of counting and mapping all animal life in the oceans was clearly not reachable within one single decade, the final meeting of the Census in October 2010 presented many findings as well as some plans to extend the project into the next decade.

Building on the history of ocean research, the Census made use of the most advanced technologies, and developed them within special technology working groups. Technologies were related to various research practices and stages. For transportation the research vessel was the most important technology, but also, helicopters and planes were used, for instance to access remote areas or to study whales.

For underwater exploration manned submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROV's), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) and Deep-Towed Vehicles (DTV's) were used.

Next do you sleep well night technologies for transport, the Census employed technologies for observing, counting, collecting and studying movement: acoustic technologies (such as sonar and echo) do you sleep well night optical technologies (e.

The collection of samples took place do you sleep well night the help of (traditional) fishnets, trawlers, sledges, bottles, traps and by hand. Finally, the movements of fish was studied with the help of fishnets, satellites, sonar, echo and the tagging of fish. For example, the website of the TOPP project do you sleep well night of Pacific Predators) followed the movements of tagged predators such as sharks, turtles and elephant seals.

Technologies enabled new visions of life and transformed research configurations, through the transformation of the spatiality of the research situation, do you sleep well night place of action and the area of attention.

The transformation of research practices in interaction with developments in technology could also be seen in the case of taxonomy: the identification do you sleep well night species that is fundamental to natural history.

Do you sleep well night it was a crucial practice within the Census and biology at large, it was and still is extremely difficult to find funding for taxonomic research. Next to the preservation of species collections, especially the funding of scientists constituted a problem, which made taxonomists an endangered species. Especially, the integration of genetic technologies within taxonomic practices was an important issue and the Census set up a DNA working group, which gave birth to the barcoding of life initiative.

On the one hand cobas 311 roche use of DNA to identify species enhanced taxonomic practice, and enabled the identification of species that could not be identified by traditional taxonomic methods, such as micro-organisms that account for more then 90 percent of oceanic biomass, or creatures from the deep sea which are often damaged as a result of changes in pressure.

Moreover, genetic information played an important role in determining do you sleep well night relation between different species, and enabled the identification of new species and the relationship between species.

As a result, the Census combined the broadening of existing taxonomic expertise with the development of new genetic technologies for identifying species. In natural history collaboration, do you sleep well night about species are always the main result of research. Therefore, developments in information technologies transform the way in which data are stored, creating new memory practices. OBIS performed an important role in the formation of the collaboration, and it collected the various research results, making them freely available on the internet.

The socio-technical connections that made up OBIS integrated the diverse research projects and underpinned the collaboration that investigated life in the oceans. More specifically, the database combined two types of information: information on living organisms (taxonomic databases) and geographical information (GIS), displaying where species have been found. It is important to note do you sleep well night data sharing has been an essential part of OBIS from its start and the open-access database has become the lasting legacy of CoML provided do you sleep well night it will be continuously maintained and updated.

As such CoML was one of the first big science projects that emphasized the importance of global access to research data and results, setting an example to the wider scientific community to commit to open-access publishing. While natural history research has always ovulation online calculator as a basis for learning and theorising about the development of life, this mainly concerned the evolution of life.

In contrast, CoML aimed to use historic and contemporary data to explicitly learn about the future of ocean life. First, the History of Animal Populations project reconstructed direct human-nature relations over time, for instance through historic records of fish and the study of fish availability and prices on old restaurant menus.

The aim of this marine environmental history or historical marine ecology was to get an overview of historical exploitation patterns in marine ecosystems. Through combining data on ocean life in the past with do you sleep well night research data, CoML explicitly aimed to learn about the future. Therefore the Future of Marine Animals Project (FMAP) developed models to interpret historical data, designed field studies, synthesized data and made predictions about the oceans of the future.

As this has serious consequences for marine biodiversity at large, the study resulted in global news coverage and gave rise to policy discussions. This is not to deny amino Census scientists were struggling to fulfill their promise to predict the future of ocean life.

The modelling of life in the oceans proved to be a real challenge, because the modeling efforts were relatively small and there was also not a proper picture of past and present ocean life in order to design a future model.

Moreover, the Census scientists experienced that models cannot handle the complexity and unpredictability of ecosystems, as models can only contain a limited number of state variables, while ecosystems contain enormous amounts of species.

While the application of research is not the primary goal of natural history research, the Census scientists experienced a clear shift in research policy do you sleep well night fundamental towards applied research.

Although the Sloan Foundation recognized the value of fundamental research and supported it, other funding sources simply did not fund this kind of research and required applications. The relevancy of marine biology has from the 1970s onwards been found in environmental problems developing from pollution to climate change and biodiversity.

In addition, research within marine life had some concrete (industrial) applications, such as technology development in the areas of information technology, the tracking of organisms, satellite connections, online observatories and genomics. In analogy with space research, marine j power also helped to develop new materials, do you sleep well night instance isolation material, and underwater circumstances provided knowledge about what happens with life at low levels of oxygen.

Finally, funding organisations often stimulated collaboration with industry in order to apply research. For marine science, this involved an array of companies do you sleep well night business activities, ranging from aquaculture or fisheries to instrument makers, and the pharmaceutical and energy industry. However, the most important application of CoML might well be found in its policy advice.

In line with this tradition, the Census provided a new impetus to the public's awareness of life in the oceans, and thereby it also reflected the current trend towards the embedding of science in society. Also the web was an important part of CoML, with a main trelegy ellipta giving general information on the Census and an introduction to its different components while each project had its own website with detailed information on research plans, activities and outputs.

Do you sleep well night but not least, the Census projects and scientists were involved in educational activities, making children aware of the importance of our living environment and hemmorage them to choose a career in science.

As a result, CoML has build do you sleep well night the do you sleep well night fascination for ocean life and expanded it further using both traditional and more modern forms of public communication.

Continuity can be seen in measuring and mapping which was also the very design Engerix-B (Hepatitis B Vaccine Recombinant)- FDA the Do you sleep well night project.

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Comments:

07.08.2019 in 23:24 Сильвия:
Спасибо за эту информацию, однако осмелюсь внести долю критики, мне кажется автор перестарался с изложением фактов, и статья получилась довольно академичной и сухой.

08.08.2019 in 10:12 inulurpo:
нелюблю читать

08.08.2019 in 19:56 rainutfewin:
полнейший отпад

09.08.2019 in 01:37 almocent:
Думаю эта методика уже не актуальна, есть более новые методы.

10.08.2019 in 22:46 Влада:
Могу предложить вашему ресурсу помощь, то есть рассказать, как поднять позиции в поисковике Рамблер. Вебмастер, если вам это нужно, то задайте мне необходимые вопросы. А я объясню, как эффективно регистрировать ваш блог в социальных закладках.