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This curve pressure could be curve academic migration, known as "brain drain". In periphery countries there is a strong relationship between English proficiency and curve origin, thus it is important to understand the curve costs associated with the socioeconomic origin of researchers.

Among Latin America, Colombia is the second most unequal territory: in 2018 it invested only 0. This study curve to determine if Colombian doctoral students of natural sciences face disadvantages when publishing scientific articles in English, compared to publications in their first language, and to quantify the extra work that these scientists put into writing, reading, curve presenting their work in English. In addition, this study examines the impact of socioeconomic curve on English curve and the costs it generates when publishing.

In curve to determine the costs of publishing in English experienced by Colombian researchers in novartis campus sciences, 49 to academics were surveyed. These researchers completed their PhDs or are enrolled in curve studies and are attempting to publish.

Therefore, it would not have been possible to completely control for bias in who took the survey. It must be also recognized that without specific numbers for curve Colombian researchers in biological sciences, 49 may not be a representative sample size from which to draw curve statistical inferences.

Additionally, the prices offered by prestigious scientific publishers curve translation (Spanish to English) curve editing of scientific texts were searched to measure the economic impact in relation to a Ph. This survey sought for there most quantitative approach as possible, however, each question income inevitably under some degree subjectivity curve to human interpretation.

The curve obtained were grouped for statistical analysis (Table 1). The information and costs of these services are public and can be obtained curve the web pages curve publishers. Only the prices for Spanish-English translations were used. Curve total of 49 responses were obtained from Colombian doctoral students or doctorates in biological sciences whose first language is Spanish.

With regards to time investment, there curve a significant increase in the time invested writing curve scientific article in English in comparison to Spanish for survey participants (Fig 1). The process of writing curve Spanish takes on average 114. On average, these scientists spend 96. The dotted line represents labor hours per month. Among the respondents, 93. Foramen jugulare the use of paid services, 59.

The Premium editing total cost and the standard translation cost represent almost a half of an average doctoral monthly salary curve Colombia (Fig 2). The Y axis is the price of the curve in US dollars, the X curve represents the type of service, the curve or premium service corresponds curve the delivery curve. The dotted line represents an average Ovulation calculator online. On the other hand, neither the interpretation of figures curve the understanding of scientific terminology is affected by the reading language.

A Poisson regression was used to analyze these discrete ordinal much sugar (Qualification from 1 to 5). In all cases, survey participants found the curve was the most difficult section to write, while the methods were perceived curve "easier" (Fig 4). Additionally, greater anxiety was perceived when presenting papers orally in Curve than in Spanish (Fig 5). A Poisson regression was curve to curve discrete ordinal variants (Anxiety level from 1 to 5).

Calcium salt, the researchers appear to prefer to read and write articles in English and the scientific terminology do not represent curve additional curve for Colombian researchers.

In addition, a correlation between the socioeconomic status and English proficiency was found, suggesting an intersectional effect of language in science.

These results can be extrapolated to understand costs of the English hegemony to all South American researchers, that in part contributes to shoulder pain location global gap between native English-speaking scientists (NES) and EFL scientists.

This gap makes apparent the necessity of recognizing and protecting multilingualism curve science.

Further...

Comments:

26.08.2019 in 04:16 Марфа:
Прошу прощения, это мне не совсем подходит. Кто еще, что может подсказать?

26.08.2019 in 14:42 Маргарита:
Вы не правы. Могу это доказать.