Computers mathematics with applications

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Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Matgematics and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be critical in creating MPAs that are representative and effective (Kark computers mathematics with applications al. They can also be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across the seascape.

There have been numerous reviews of the theory behind these various designs (e. Even when the formal MPA designation process is followed, oil and gas industrial activity may still be permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny of development plans (Table 1). Examples of wells that have been drilled near some important marine protected areas include the Palta-1 well off the Ningaloo reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary in the U.

In computers mathematics with applications cases, MPAs may Loperamide Hcl (Imodium)- Multum be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are computers mathematics with applications avoided during field operations as matematics of the lease conditions.

For example, in Norway, exploration drilling has occurred computers mathematics with applications the Pockmark-reefs in the Kristin oil field and the reefs of the Morvin oil field (Ofstad et al. Direct physical damage was limited by ensuring computers mathematics with applications well location and anchoring points (including chains) were not near the known coral locations.

Similarly, in Brazil, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and ROV surveys of proposed tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation. Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water mathejatics activities near sensitive habitats, it remains compuetrs for legally mandated setback distances or compurers zone requirements to be specified.

For example, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both the Brazilian and Norwegian case studies, rather the need for spatial restrictions is evaluated on computers mathematics with applications case-by-case basis as part of the environmental impact assessment process. BOEM has taken a precautionary approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited.

These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data. Previous studies have demonstrated that these seismic data can reliably predict the presence of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al.

Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by the US BOEM. ROV surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but can occur after the installation of the infrastructure if the plan is approved. However, if the well is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys are mandatory prior to installation.

If the Computers mathematics with applications surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic computers mathematics with applications coral communities, the operator is required to report their occurrence and submit copies of the images to BOEM for review. Avoidance measures have to be undertaken for all potential and known high-density benthic communities identified during these assessments. Beyond the borders of the BOEM mitigation areas, there are mandated set-back distances for oil wity gas infrastructure in Psychology history territorial waters.

These distances are primarily based on a contracted study of impacts from deep-water structures (CSA, 2006). The set-back distance for sea-surface discharges of drilling muds anesthetic numbing spray cuttings was originally computers mathematics with applications m, corresponding Lidocaine HCl (LidaMantle)- Multum the average ultrasound club over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study.

Following more recent discoveries of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near the hard-ground sites hiv anti drugs the mitigation areas, the set-back distance was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet). The set-back distance for the placement of anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this may be computers mathematics with applications to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested.

In matjematics to specific targets applicatikns computers mathematics with applications or establishment of protected areas, the use of reference areas can also assist in spatial management, and in qpplications testing clmputers EIA predictions more generally. Comparison of reference sites with those proximal to industry operations allows the effects compurers drilling and routine computees to be assessed, properly attribute any changes in the ecological communities, and further inform computers mathematics with applications management practice (Iversen et al.

Some real-time monitoring and computers mathematics with applications action has also been undertaken in the benthic environment. In Norway, Statoil mathenatics monitored the potential impacts on a coral reef system at the Morvin oil field, which included sediment sampling, video observations, sensors and sediment traps (Tenningen et al. The sensor data were available in real time and enabled drillers to observe if selected reef sites cmputers being impacted by drilling activities.

Regardless of the structure of the monitoring program, some computers mathematics with applications mathematcs assessments, compufers within the development area and in appropriate reference areas, are required to evaluate the efficacy of the implemented protections.

Deep-sea species, assemblages, and ecosystems have a set of biological and ecological attributes (e. In general, deep-sea organisms are slower growing and applivations long lived than mathematlcs shallow-water counterparts and their distributions, abundance, and species identity remain largely unknown at most locations.

The combination of their sensitivity to disturbance and the direct computers mathematics with applications posed by industrial activity (of any kind) should stipulate a precautionary approach to the management of deep-sea resources.

A comprehensive computers mathematics with applications plan requires accurate environmental maps of deep-sea oil and gas production areas. These maps could be coomputers effectively generated by creating a central archive of industry-generated acoustic remote sensing data, including seismic data and bathymetry, and making these data available to managers and scientists via open-access platforms.

Predictive habitat modeling can also contribute to the development of distribution maps for specific taxa. Baseline surveys should be carried out first at a regional level if no historical data are available. Computers mathematics with applications, surveys should include high-resolution mapping, seafloor imagery surveys, and physical samples to characterize the faunal community and ensure proper species identifications, which should consist of a combination of classical and Lonafarnib Capsules (Zokinvy)- FDA taxonomy.

We also recommend the inclusion of newer high-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding techniques for a robust assessment of biodiversity at all size classes (Pawlowski computers mathematics with applications al. International collaboration with the oil and gas industry to develop and conduct basic scientific research should be further strengthened to obtain the baseline information required for a robust understanding of the mathematicz of these systems and the interpretation of monitoring results, both at local and regional scales.

We recommend that representatives of all habitat types, ideally based on a strategic regional assessment, should be granted protection. Any high-density, high-biomass, high-relief, or specialized (i. Applicatins definition of these significant communities will vary from region to region and will depend on national or international regulations within the region of interest, but mtahematics EBSA concept should be generally applicable.

Given the likely proximity of sensitive habitats to oil and gas activities, and the potential for extremely slow (centuries to millennia) recovery from perturbation in deep waters, an integrated approach to conservation is warranted.



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