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The structured abstracts were, as expected, longer than the traditional ones. It is interesting to note, however, that the average length of the traditional abstracts was also longer than the 120 words specified by the APA. Hartley (2002) argued that the extra space required by introducing structured abstracts was a trivial amount for most journals, amounting at the most to three or four lines of text. In many journals new articles begin on right-hand pages, and few articles finish exactly at the bottom of the previous left-hand one.

In other journals, such as Science Communication, new articles begin on the first left- or right-hand page available, Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum even here articles rarely finish at the bottom of the previous page.

Such concerns, of course, do not arise for electronic journals and databases. More importantly, in this section, we need to consider cost-effectiveness, rather than just cost. With the extra lines comes extra information. It may be that more informative abstracts might encourage wider readership, greater citation rates and higher journal impact factors - all of which authors and editors might think desirable.

Interestingly enough, McIntosh et al. Table 1 shows the Flesch Reading Ease scores for the traditional and the structured abstracts obtained in this enquiry. Of course it is possible that the finding of a significant difference in favour of the Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum scores for the structured abstracts in this study reflects the fact that fact that the present author wrote Liletta (Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine System)- Multum of the structured abstracts.

However, since this finding has also occurred in other studies where the abstracts have been written by different authors (e. The Flesch Reading Ease score Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum of course a crude - as well as dated - measure, and it ignores factors affecting readability such as type-size, type-face, line-length, and the effects of sub-headings and paragraphs, as well as readers' novo nordisk b knowledge.

Nonetheless, it is a useful measure for comparing different versions of the same texts, Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum Flesch scores have been quite widely used - along with other measures - for assessing the readability of Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum abstracts (e. The gain in readability scores found for the structured abstracts in this study came, no doubt, from the fact that the abstracts had significantly shorter Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum and, as the LIWC data showed, made a greater use of shorter words.

The LIWC data also showed that the structured abstracts contained significantly more common words and made anal hair significantly greater use of the present tense. These findings seem to suggest that it is easier to provide information when writing under sub-headings than it is when writing in a continuous paragraph.

Such gains in readability should not be dismissed lightly, for a number of studies have shown that traditional abstracts Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum difficult to read. Tenopir and Jacso (1993) for instance reported a mean Flesch score of 19 for over 300 abstracts published in APA journals.

This finding is similar to one that we found when looking at the readability of well-known and less well-known articles in psychology (Hartley, Sotto and Pennebaker, 2002). The view that scientific writing involves a greater use of passives, the third person and the past tense is perhaps more of a myth than many people suspect (see, e.

Indeed the APA Publication Manual (2001) states, "Verbs are vigorous, direct communicators. Use the active rather than the passive voice, and select tense or mood carefully".

This is hardly surprising, given the nature of structured abstracts, but it is important. Thus it appears that in these abstracts more Minoxidil Tablets (Minoxidil)- Multum was given on the reasons for making the study, where the participants came from, the sex distributions of these participants, and on the final conclusions Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum. These findings reflect the fact that few authors in American journals seem to realise that not all of their readers will be American, and that copaxone Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum need to know the general context in which a study takes place in order to assess its relevance for their needs.

Stating the actual age group of participants is also helpful because different countries use different Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum for describing people of different ages. The word 'student', for instance, usually refers to someone studying in tertiary education in the UK, whereas the same word is used for very young children in the USA. Although the checklist is a simple measure (giving equal weight Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum each item, and is inappropriate for review papers), it is nonetheless clear from the results that the structured abstracts contained significantly more information than the original ones and that this can be regarded as an advantage for such abstracts.

In previous studies of the clarity of abstracts (e. In this present study the participants were asked to 'rate each of these of abstracts out of 10 Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum clarity (with a higher score meaning greater clarity)'. This was followed by the explanation: 'If you have difficulty with what I Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum by Actiq (Fentanyl Citrate)- FDA, the kinds of words I have in mind are: 'readable', 'well-organized', 'clear', and 'informative'.

However, the mean ratings obtained here of 6. Nonetheless, because the current results are based on abstracts in general rather than on different versions of the same abstract, these findings offer more convincing evidence for the superiority of structured abstracts in this respect. Finally, in this section, we should note that several of the respondents took adhesions endometriosis opportunity to comment on the abstracts that they were asked to judge.

Table 2 contains a selection from these remarks. Abstracts in journal articles are an intriguing genre. They cl n2, in a brief text, the essence of the article that follows. And, according to the APA Publication Manual (2001), "A well-prepared abstract can be the most important paragraph in your article The abstract needs to be dense Topiramate Extended-Release Capsules (Qudexy XR)- Multum information but also readable, well bayer email, brief and self-contained".

Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995) have described how the physical format of journal papers has altered in order to facilitate searching and reading, and how abstracts in scientific journal articles have been getting both longer and more informative (p.

The current move towards adopting structured abstracts might thus be seen as part of a more general move towards the Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum of more clearly defined structures kirsty johnson academic writing. These wider issues, however, are beyond the scope of this particular paper.

Here I have merely reported the findings from comparing traditional abstracts with their equivalent structured versions in one particular context. My aim, however, has been to illustrate in general Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum structured abstracts might make a positive contribution to scientific communication.

James Hartley is Research Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Keele in Staffordshire, Zoetis pfizer. His main interests lie in written communication and in teaching and learning in higher education. He is the author of Designing Instructional Text (3rd ed. Originally published in Science Communication, 2003, Vol 24, 3, 366-379, copyright: Sage Publications. I am grateful to Geoff Luck for scoring the abstract checklist, James Pennebaker for the LIWC data, and colleagues from the Journal of Educational Psychology who either gave permission for me to use their abstracts, or took part in this enquiry.

Note: this checklist is not suitable for theoretical or review papers but can be adapted to make it Besivance (Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum.

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Comments:

26.03.2019 in 14:03 goostajunoun:
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30.03.2019 in 09:17 Раиса:
Одному богу известно!

02.04.2019 in 01:02 Нина:
уже есть, и уже видел давно ждал