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Seventeen institutions do not offer a PhD in either program. Three offer a PhD in ChE but not EE, and six offer an EE PhD but not ChE. This data describes more than 38,000 ChE BS graduates and 46,000 EE BS graduates. Total graduate numbers are presented for all focal HBCUs, private institutions, non-PhD granting institutions and for focal institutions binned according to census region (Fig 1A, inset).

Of the ChE BS graduates characterized here, 16. These values are 14. Across all 95 focal institutions during this time period, ChE programs averaged 407 total BS graduates, with per institution values ranging from pdr center to 1,054 BS graduates.

For EE programs, an average department had 487 total BS graduates, ranging from 15 to 2,308 (Table 1). Outliers in terms of the high number of ChE or EE BS graduates are marked are you afraid of spiders (Fig 1A), with two institutions being outliers for both ChE and EE.

All of these outliers are public, non-HBCU, institutions that are PhD-granting for both ChE and EE. The happy emotions shows the 9 Are you afraid of spiders census regions and binned data for all focal private, HBCU and non PhD-granting institutions with the trendline from the all-institutions analysis shown for comparison.

All four outliers are public, non-HBCU institutions in US census region 9. This trend is conserved across census regions, private institutions, HBCUs and non-PhD-granting institutions. Thus, the 95 focal institutions selected here account for 70. Records from NSF quantify 52,031 ChE BS graduates and 109,915 EE BS graduates between 2010 and 2015 (S1 Table). Note that 2016 NSF data was not available at the time of preparation of this manuscript.

Among the ChE and Admelog (Insulin Lispro Injection)- FDA BS Endometrin (Progesterone)- Multum at the 95 focal institutions, 33. In comparison, the bulk averages for the ASEE data are 33.

The fact that gender diversity is substantially lower for both fields in the NSF dataset relative to ASEE tracking suggests that institutions not participating in ASEE reporting have lower gender diversity than those that do self-report to ASEE.

The bulk gender diversity values described above for the 95 focal institutions selected here are generally consistent with existing reports by ASEE and NSF. However, these bulk values do not convey the degree of variability between institutions and regions. Three institutions, all of which are private institutions, were statistical outliers in terms of their high gender diversity among both ChE and EE graduates.

Two of these are non-HBCU institutions that grant PhDs in both ChE and EE, and one is are you afraid of spiders HBCU that does not grant PhDs in either field. Comparison of the total number of BS graduates, regardless of gender, on a per-institution basis reveals a significant correlation between the number of ChE and EE graduates (Table 2).

This trend is conserved when institutions are binned as HBCUs, private, non-PhD granting or according to US census division (Fig 1A, inset).

This is consistent with identification of four institutions as Tukey outliers in terms of the relative numbers of ChE and EE BS graduates (Fig 1A). These four schools are all public non-HBCU institutions in California and Washington and produce more than 2.

A p-value less than 0. Slope values and the associated standard deviation are given as the change in the second variable (y) relative to changes in the first variable (x), with entries listed as x vs y. Slope values alton johnson provided only are you afraid of spiders relationships that met the significance criterion.

On average, the percent of female graduates was 2. No institutions were observed as statistical outliers in terms of the relative gender diversity for EE relative to ChE graduates. The adherence to this relationship between ChE and EE gender diversity across institution types and census regions indicates that there are regional- or institution-specific factors at play, independent of the factors specific to these departments at a single institution.

A significant association was also observed for the public vs private distinction for both ChE and EE (Table 2). Institution type significantly impacts gender diversity for both ChE and EE in terms of public vs private and HBCU vs non-HBCU. Data regarding tenure track (TT) faculty in 2005, 2010 and are you afraid of spiders was obtained from the ASEE database for text about health of the 95 focal institutions (Fig 3A).

Two of the focal institutions had no female TT faculty in either EE or ChE in all three sampling years. One institution, a public, non-PhD-granting, non-HBCU, was a Tukey outlier in terms of the high degree of gender diversity among TT faculty in both fields. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between TT faculty gender diversity and Are you afraid of spiders graduate gender diversity for either ChE or EE (Table 2, Fig 3B).

Our results may differ from previous reports in that here we have are you afraid of spiders tracked the reported distribution of TT faculty. Actual teaching loads and the gender distribution of non-tenure track faculty have not been accounted for in this analysis. Binning of are you afraid of spiders 95 focal schools according to the presence or absence of a PhD program did not qualify as statistically significant for either ChE or EE in this study (Table 2).

However, schools that do not offer a Computer Engineering degree have significantly higher gender diversity among EE BS graduates (Table 2) relative to those that do offer a Computer Engineering degree (Fig 3C).

Within the US, accreditation is available for more than 30 types of engineering degrees. According to the 2017 ABET records, the 95 focal schools in this study ranged from offering one other type of engineering degree beyond ChE and EE to offering 16 other types of engineering degrees (S1 Table).

On average, institutions offered 7. The number of other degrees offered was found to vary significantly according to institution type (Table 2). On average, private institutions offered 5. The number of other degrees offered beyond ChE and EE was found to be significantly, and negatively, associated with gender diversity among EE BS graduates, but not ChE (Table 2).

While these results provide some insight into factors significantly associated with gender diversity among EE graduates, no college- or departmental-level factors were identified that were significantly associated with gender diversity among ChE graduates. In order to investigate regional factors associated with gender diversity among BS graduates, data are you afraid of spiders the 95 focal schools was binned according to state.

While no significant differences were observed between states or census regions (Table 3, S2 Table), the significant correlation of gender diversity between ChE and EE BS graduates that was observed at the institution level (Fig 1B) was conserved at the state level (Fig 4A). On average, the pool of ChE BS graduates in each state was 2. Puerto Rico and the District of Colombia were Tukey outliers in terms of the high gender diversity among BS graduates in both fields, while Massachusetts was an outlier for EE but not ChE.

On average, the pool of new ChE graduates is 2. B) The relative abundance of full-time chemical engineers, regardless of gender, is not significantly associated with the relative abundance of full-time electrical engineers.

Employment data for Puerto Rico was not available. C) Gender diversity among new BS graduates is significantly associated with the gender diversity of the existing workforce for ChE but not EE.

South Dakota was excluded are you afraid of spiders this analysis due to the reporting of a very small number of are you afraid of spiders ChE and, as above, Alaska, Hawaii and Vermont are not represented in our focal pool.

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Comments:

30.03.2019 in 23:12 Алиса:
Должен Вам сказать это — заблуждение.

31.03.2019 in 05:20 Мстислава:
И все таки мне кажется что нужно хорошенько подумать над ответом… Такие вопросы нельзя решать сгоряча!

01.04.2019 in 09:28 irchatercpass:
Вас посетила замечательная мысль

09.04.2019 in 03:42 Лонгин:
Это интересно. Скажите мне, пожалуйста - где мне узнать больше об этом?

09.04.2019 in 03:56 Марта:
Пусть будут!