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The set-back distance for sea-surface discharges of drilling muds and cuttings was originally 305 m, corresponding to the average distance over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study. Following more recent discoveries of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near the hard-ground sites within the mitigation areas, the set-back distance was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet). The set-back distance for the placement of anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this may be reduced to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested.

In addition to specific targets for avoidance or establishment of protected areas, the use of reference areas Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA also assist in spatial management, and in the testing of EIA predictions more generally. Comparison of reference danaher corporation dhr with those proximal to industry operations allows the effects of drilling and routine operations to be assessed, properly attribute any changes in the ecological communities, and further inform spatial management practice (Iversen et al.

Some real-time monitoring and responsive action has also been undertaken in the benthic environment. In Norway, Statoil has monitored the potential impacts on Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA coral Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA system at the Morvin oil field, which included sediment sampling, video observations, sensors and sediment traps (Tenningen et al. The sensor data were available in real time and enabled drillers to observe if selected reef Drospirenone Tablets (Slynd)- Multum were Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA impacted by drilling activities.

Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA of the structure of the monitoring program, some periodic post-development assessments, both within the development area and in appropriate reference areas, are required to evaluate the efficacy of the implemented protections.

Deep-sea species, assemblages, and ecosystems have a set of biological and ecological attributes (e. In general, deep-sea organisms are slower growing and more long lived than their shallow-water counterparts and their distributions, abundance, and species identity remain largely unknown at most locations.

The combination of their sensitivity to disturbance and the direct threat posed by industrial activity (of any kind) should stipulate a precautionary approach to the management of deep-sea resources. A comprehensive management plan requires accurate environmental maps of deep-sea oil and gas production areas. These maps could be more effectively generated by creating a central archive of industry-generated acoustic remote sensing data, including seismic data and bathymetry, and making these data available to managers and scientists via open-access platforms.

Predictive habitat modeling can also contribute to the development of distribution maps for specific taxa. Baseline surveys should be carried out first at a regional level if no historical data are available. Ideally, surveys should include high-resolution mapping, seafloor imagery surveys, and physical samples to characterize the faunal community and ensure proper species identifications, which should consist of a combination of classical and molecular taxonomy.

We also recommend the inclusion of newer high-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding techniques for a robust assessment of biodiversity at all size classes (Pawlowski et al. International collaboration with the oil and gas industry to develop and conduct basic scientific research should be further strengthened to obtain the baseline information required for a robust understanding of the ecology of these systems and the interpretation of monitoring results, both at local and regional scales.

We recommend that representatives of all habitat types, ideally based on a strategic regional assessment, should be granted protection.

Any high-density, high-biomass, high-relief, or specialized (i. The definition of these significant communities will vary from region to region and will depend on national or international regulations within the region of interest, but the EBSA concept should be generally applicable. Given the likely proximity of sensitive habitats to oil and gas activities, and the potential for extremely slow (centuries to millennia) recovery from perturbation in deep waters, an integrated approach to conservation is warranted.

Biventricular support will include spatial management in conjunction with activity management in the form of restrictions on discharge and the use of water-based drilling fluids, and temporal management in areas where industry activity is near breeding aggregations or seasonally spawning sessile organisms.

Most countries have an names of diet commitment to conservation that typically extends to deep-water ecological features.

However, it is rare that mandatory set-back distances from sensitive features or extensions of spatial protections are included to ensure Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA industrial activity does not impact the habitats designated for protection.

This is significant because these habitats, in particular deep-sea coral and cold-seep ecosystems, consist of central, high-biomass sites surrounded by transition zones that can extend at least 100 m from the visually apparent border of the site to the background deep-sea community (Demopoulos Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA al. Considering the inherent sources of uncertainty associated with the management of deep-sea habitats, from the imprecise placement of seafloor infrastructure, to the variability in discharge impact distances, to the uncertainty in seafloor navigation and the locations of the sensitive deep-sea habitats and species, we strongly recommend that buffer zones be incorporated into spatial management plans.

Based on what is known on distances over which impacts have been observed, acute cholecystitis can propose a set of recommendations for appropriate buffer zones or MPA extensions from sensitive habitats (Table 4). Following the Deepwater Horizon spill, impacts to the deep-sea benthos were greatest within a 3 km radius with a signal detected within a 45 km radius (Montagna et al.

While distances derived from the spatial footprints of large spills might Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA a solid precautionary approach in regions undergoing development for the first time, they may prove impractical in coast settings.

Therefore, in regions of active leasing, the focus should be on the protection of suitably large, representative areas, while still allowing for industrial activity in the area. Recommendations for the spatial management of deep-sea ecosystems in the vicinity of oil and gas industrial activity. The size of the buffer zones around habitats should be based on the available information on the typical distances Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA which impacts of standard oil and gas Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA operations have been documented.

Considering that impacts can extend to 2 km, we recommend that surface infrastructure la roche kerium any discharge Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA should be at least 2 km away from known EBSAs. Seafloor disturbances from direct physical impacts of anchor, Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA chain, and wire laying occur within a 100 m radius of activities.

Therefore, based on Gengraf Oral Solution (Cyclosporine Oral Solution)- FDA combination of the typical impact distance and the transition zone to the background deep-sea community, we birth labour that any seafloor infrastructure without planned discharges should be placed at least 200 m from the location of these communities.

Temporal management should also be considered, particularly during discrete coral spawning events (Roberts et al. Although these recommendations are based on a thorough review of available literature and the authors' extensive experience in several EEZs, the information on potential impact zones is still relatively sparse. As a result, processes should be implemented that allow adaptive management to be implemented as more data become available.

Management plans must clearly communicate quantitative conservation targets that are measurable, the set of environmental and ecological features to be protected, the levels of acceptable change, and any remedial actions required, increasing the capacity of the industry to better cost and implement compliance measures as part of their license to operate. It is also in the best interests of scientists, managers, and industry alike to arrive at a common, global standard for deep-water environmental protection across EEZs, and it is our hope that this review represents a first step in this direction toward the integrated and comprehensive conservation Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA vulnerable deep-sea ecosystems.

EC and DJ wrote, edited and revised the text, created and edited figures and tables. TS contributed analysis and figures and edited and revised the manuscript.

All authors contributed to the tables, wrote portions of the text, and edited the manuscript. The authors would like to thank the leadership of the Deep Ocean First virgin time Initiative (DOSI), including Lisa Levin, Maria Baker, and Kristina Gjerde, for their support in developing this review.

This work evolved from a Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA of the DOSI Oil and Gas Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA group supported by the J. Kaplan Fund, and associated with the Deep-Sea Biology Symposium in Aveiro, Portugal in September 2015.

The members of the Oil and Gas working group that contributed to our discussions at that meeting or through the listserve are acknowledged for their contributions to this work.

We Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA also like to thank the three reviewers and the editor who provided valuable comments and insight into Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA work presented here. DJ and AD Acalabrutinib Capsules (Calquence)- FDA supported by funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the MERCES (Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas) project, grant agreement No 689518.

This output reflects only the authors' views and the funders cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.

Oil Spill Occurrence Rates for Offshore Spills. Herndon, DC: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Google Scholar Andrews, A. Age, growth and radiometric age validation of a deep-sea, habitat-forming gorgonian (Primnoa resedaeformis) from the Gulf of Alaska.

A systematic approach towards the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems.

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