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Meeting these difficulties has had energizing results. The revelation of organic groups close aqueous vents. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gilead sciences limited becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet.

While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially Tadalafil (Cialis)- FDA interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society.

Citation: Vermeulen N (2013) From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54284. This Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The Wellcome Trust provided the funds to make this publication open-access. No other external funding sources. Especially life in the depth of the oceans and invisible life such as micro-organisms are still a big mystery. While the Human Genome Project (HGP) is often presented as the first large-scale research project in the life sciences, natural Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA shows that scientific collaboration is hardly new to biology.

However, studies of scientific collaboration pay little attention to these collaborations that collect, identify and catalogue life. This paper will therefore explore large-scale research efforts in marine biology further.

Does CoML still resemble traditional collaborations to collect life, or have developments in biology research and recent changes in the relation between science and society transformed marine biology research.

Presenting marine biology as big science, the paper will start with an introduction into big science and the discussion on big biology. After an overview of the historical development of marine biology, it will present the Census of Marine Life as a contemporary example of such collaboration, showing transformations in marine biology. By discussing various aspects of collaboration, Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA size and diversity, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, the application of research, and public communication, the paper shows how the exploration of life in the oceans started hundreds of years ago with relatively small forms of collaboration that developed over time, increasing in scale and scope while also transforming research practice.

Contemporary developments in science and society have become integrated in the traditional natural history style of research, transforming the ways in which life is measured, mapped and modeled.

Next to an extensive analysis of existing theory on scientific collaboration, empirical research covered various contemporary large-scale collaborations in the life Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA, including the Census of Marine Life. This paper is therefore not a direct result of the History of Marine Animal Populations that is part of Opinion and has as its main concern the reconstruction of human-nature relations over time and the exploration of historical exploitations patterns Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA marine ecosystems.

In contrast, the paper shows the historical development of research into marine biology. Nevertheless, these two subjects are indirectly related, as research into marine life has been influenced by human-nature relations and has also played an Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA role in shaping those relations. Growth is described as part of progress and an inevitable exponent of modern industrial society, while it is also seen as a source of problems.

Accordingly, from its emergence the concept of big science has an ambivalent understanding of growth qlaira bayer is Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA for the modern condition and which is still very much visible in the two opposing views on big science in the debate on big biology, that emerged together with the Human Genome Project and subsequent increases in the organization of biology.

In contrast, according to opponents big biology industrializes, bureaucratizes and politicizes research and dilutes creativity.

In these discussions, the term big science provided the discussants with a strong rhetorical sword, but they never explicitly reflected Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA the concept itself or the specific ways in which biology became big science. Besides being normative, big science also developed empirical significance, starting with De Solla Price's book that studies transformation in science.

In addition to big science being a self awareness article empirical phenomenon, the concept is connected to qualitative studies of scientific transformation. Against the background of the development of Science and Technology Studies, big science has been used to look into historic and contemporary practices of research Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA. The messiah paul of large-scale research complexes is perceived as a broader trend and common features are not only found in growing numbers but also in large, expensive instruments, industrialisation, centralisation, multi-disciplinary collaboration, institutionalisation, science-government relations, cooperation with industry, and internationalization.

As a result, the big science concept should be seen as a historic concept that was formed in the 1960s to reflect on increasing dimensions Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA science, while acquiring different meanings over time: the big science concept has an empirical as well as an evaluative side.

Moreover, when looking at big science empirically, a division can be made between a quantitative and a qualitative perspective and when using the concept to evaluate, positive as well as negative views on big science can be distinguished. Remarkably, discussions on big biology do not reflect on these different meanings, nor use the empirical side of the concept to investigate Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA kind of transformations actually take place in biology.

Although particle physics and space research are identified as typical forms of big science with gravitating activity around large-scale technology, it is biology that has the longest tradition in scientific collaboration all be it on a smaller scale.

Natural historians joined expeditions exploring the unknown world in order to describe, collect and catalogue new species, accumulating facts about plants and animals.

For a long time it was thought that life could only be found there and at the ocean surface, as the absence of light, low temperatures and the density of water in the deep ocean was assumed to prevent life.

At first, scientists began to investigate the depth of oceans. Sound to measure depth was first ventured by the Swiss mathematician Colladon in the Lake of Geneva, using a church bell and an ear trumpet. In 1838 this method was transferred to the ocean using explosions. As a result, scientists slowly began to realise that the oceanfloor had similar characteristics Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA the earth's surface, fifth digit syndrome in 1904 the newly established International Hydrographic Bureau published the first bathymetric standardised chart of the world ocean, based on 18400 soundings.

Next to telegraphy, shipping traffic, and the Titanic disaster, the World Wars and the following Cold War were important incentives to develop new technologies to survey the oceans and ocean research became Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA. To illustrate, the in 1930 founded American Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) played an important role in the development of oceanography.

From the 1960s onwards, marine science increasingly became an academic endeavour and the 1970s were even pronounced to be the decade of ocean research. In the 19th century the Irishman Forbes developed and professionalized the art of dredging in order to explore life in the deep. In the course of the 20th century, scientists have increasingly gained access to the deep ocean, facilitating direct observation of life in the deep-sea.

They spend 20 minutes there Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA saw a fish, which indicated that Pentamidine Isethionate (Nebupent)- FDA in the deepest ocean life is possible. In short, the investigation of oceanlife developed through interaction between scientific curiosity, societal exploitation of the sea and technological developments.

Investigations into the oceans and their living creatures is Yervoy (Ipilimumab Injection)- FDA science avant la lettre.

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