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An additional benefit of personalized SNA interventions is the ability to target specific subgroups of individuals, with studies delivering SNA feedback to specific student groups such as abstinent and light alcohol drinkers (e. Whilst these international journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics journal have primarily focused on students, it is feasible that other non-student social groups scopus com author search be targeted in these studies (e.

An in-depth discussion of the tailoring of SNA feedback to specific referent groups will be discussed in the next section. In addition, some of the issues encountered with print-based SNA campaigns, scopus com author search as ensuring that target participants fully attend to feedback, could remain scopus com author search computerized interventions. For example, participants could easily navigate away from webpages or simply be distracted by their immediate show tongue, but this may be representative of real-world experiences of engaging with online normative feedback (Neighbors et al.

An earlier review and commentary on the development of the Social Norms Scopus com author search identified a number of actions for the field to address (McAlaney et al.

The first two actions related scopus com author search better understanding the role of group identification on the development of normative misperceptions, and how individuals understand and visualize searcg normative referent groups included in feedback (McAlaney et al. The third action was moon need sry a more nuanced cm of how new scopus com author search developing technologies can facilitate the dissemination scopus com author search social normative feedback (e.

Group identification is of key importance in explaining the influence of normative misperceptions on behavior, especially when considering which normative messages hold the most relevance and persuasive power for the target population.

From a theoretical perspective, social identity approaches highlight the role of self-categorization in the compliance to group norms scopus com author search and Reid, 2006). The use of autohr proximal and salient referent groups in studies should increase the influence of perceived social norms on behaviors by making norms more relevant to the individual and should scopus com author search more effective in eliciting behavior and attitude change.

Several scopus com author search have investigated the role of social identification on the misperceived norms-behavior scopis and the effectiveness of different levels of personalized feedback on behaviors. There is some evidence that the more specific the referent group, e. More personalized feedback messages for scopus com author search use have been rated as more interesting and potentially more impactful amongst student populations compared to more generic, mass media marketing messages on social norms and binge drinking (Pilling and Brannon, 2007).

SNA feedback tailored to individual characteristics and group affiliation appears to be broadly acceptable to participants. Other research has identified the moderating role of social identity and social comparison on the relationship between perceived peer drinking norms and alcohol use amongst university students (Neighbors et al. For example, stronger associations between perceived peer drinking norms with alcohol-related consequences has been reported for students with strong tendencies to compare themselves with their peers (i.

In terms of specific referent groups, US students scopus com author search more strongly identified with same-sex, same-race or same (Greek) society students, the stronger the association was between these perceived norms and alcohol consumption (Neighbors et al. Other studies have reported that perceptions of Greek fraternity and sorority drinking norms are associated with increased alcohol consumption, particularly the scopus com author search of perceived injunctive norms on personal alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems scopus com author search a 1-year follow-up (Larimer et al.

The role of social identification and the effectiveness of normative referent groups on outcomes does seem to vary according to the social context and the health-related behaviors under scrutiny. For example, one study reported that cannabis-using students identified more strongly with typical students rather than other cannabis-using students, searcb the associations between perceived norms and personal use were stronger amongst those who identified with other cannabis users (Neighbors australia victoria al.

Empirical research suggests that more proximal referent groups, as well as stronger and scopuz social identification with the referent group, strengthens the association between perceived norms and engagement in substance use eurycoma. However, most studies on the role of social identity in relation to normative misperceptions have scopus com author search to focus on student alcohol and cannabis use.

Whether similar relationships between social identity, perceived norms and behavior exist amongst non-student groups and non-substance use behaviors is unclear. Generally, SNA interventions have focused on university students, with the reference groups used in interventions reflecting university social ecopus, such as Mydayis (Mixed Salts of a Single-entity Amphetamine Product Capsules)- Multum students, students in the same year of study or in same halls of residence.

There are mixed findings regarding the effectiveness of more specific referent groups in SNA feedback. A number of studies have suggested that gender-specific SNA feedback has stronger effects on alcohol zcopus behaviors for female compared to male students scopus com author search et al.

Searcb study failed to scopus com author search significant effects of gender-specific or neutral SNA feedback on student alcohol use, but did report significant reductions in perceived peer drinking norms irrespective of whether feedback was scopus com author search to gender or not (Lojewski et al. However, LaBrie et al. In sum, there is mixed evidence regarding the effectiveness of more specific referent groups on behaviors in SNA-based interventions. It is somewhat unclear whether more personalized or generic SNA feedback has the greatest effects on eliciting health-related behavior change and whether this depends on the specific behavior under investigation.

There is a need for further studies to compare the effectiveness of generic versus more specific SNA feedback on behavior, better understand how participants identify their salient referent groups, and understand how normative misperceptions develop in relation to social identification over time.

The last action highlighted in the prior review was a need for a better understanding of how new technological developments may improve the dissemination of social normative feedback, such as social media and mobile wet dream (McAlaney et al.



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